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Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Absorbed by the intestinal tract, stored in the liver and fatty tissues.
Not water-soluble, it is possible that the vitamins may reach toxic levels


Vitamin essential to the eyes, epithelial tissue, normal growth and development, and reproduction
Deficiency symptoms include night blindness, rough and dry skin, and growth failure
Toxicity symptoms include appetite loss, hair loss, and enlarged liver and spleen

Vitamin A


Vitamin increases the blood flow levels of minerals, notably calcium and phosphorus
Deficiency symptoms include faulty bone growth, rickets, and osteomalacia
Toxicity symptoms include calcification of soft tissues, and hypercalcemia

Vitamin D


Vitamin functions as an antioxidant in cell membranes and important for the integrity of cells that are constantly exposed to high levels of oxygen such as the lungs and red blood cells
Deficiency symptoms include breakdown of red blood cells, but is rare
Toxicity symptoms include decreased thyroid hormone levels and increased triglycerides

Vitamin E


Vitamin necessary for synthesis of proteins involved in blood clotting
Deficiency symptoms include hemorrhage and defective blood clotting

Vitamin K


Water-Soluble Vitamins

Not stored in the body and therefore needed in diet on daily basis.
Toxicity is less common with fat-soluble vitamins


Vitamin that facilitates selected enzymes involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
Deficiency symptoms include inflammation of tongue, sensitive eyes, and scaling of the skin

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)


Vitamin that facilitates enzymes that regulate energy metabolism
Deficiency symptoms include pellagra and gastrointestinal disturbances
Toxicity symptoms include abnormal glucose metabolism, nausea, vomiting, and gastric ulceration

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)


Vitamin essential in metabolism of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fat
Deficiency symptoms include peripheral neuropathy, convulsions, and depression
Toxicity symptoms include sensory damage, numbness of the extremities, and ataxia

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)


Vitamin essential for functioning of all cells and aids in hemoglobin synthesis
Deficiency symptoms include pernicious anemia and various psychological disorders

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)


Vitamin that assists the body to combat infections and facilitates wound healing. Necessary for the development and maintenance of bones, cartilage, connective tissue, and blood vessels.
Deficiency symptoms include anemia, swollen gums, loose teeth, and scurvy
Toxicity symptoms include urinary stones, diarrhea and hypoglycemia

Vitamin C


Vitamin necessary fro action of many enzyme systems
Deficiency symptoms include anemia depression, and muscle pain



Vitamin is a component of compounds necessary for nerve function and lipid metabolism



Vitamin involved in the formation of red blood cells and in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract
Deficiency symptoms include impaired cell division and alteration of protein synthesis

Folacin (Folic acid)


Vitamin as an integral component of complex enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids
Deficiency symptoms include headache, fatigue, and poor muscle coordination

Pantothenic Acid


Mineral facilitates muscle contraction and relaxation, builds strong bones and teeth, and aids in coagulation
Deficiency leads to poor growth, rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis



Mineral that facilitates that maintenance of fluid and acid-base balance

Chloride (Cl)


Mineral that builds strong bones and teeth, activates enzymes, and helps regulate heartbeat
Deficiency symptoms include confusion, apathy, muscle weakness, and tremors

Magnesium (Mg)


Mineral that strengthens bones, assists in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates, and aids in maintaining acid-base balance
Deficiency symptoms include weakness, stiff joints, and fragile bones

Phosphorus (P)


Mineral that maintains fluid and acid-base balance
Deficiency symptoms include impaired growth, hypertension, and diminished heart rate

Potassium (K)


Mineral that facilitates the maintenance of acid-base balance, transmits nerve impulses, and helps control muscle contractions

Sodium (Na)


Mineral that facilitates enzyme activity and energy metabolism

Sulfur (S)


Trace mineral that controls glucose metabolism
Deficiency symptoms include weight loss and central nervous system abnormalities

Chromium (Cr)


Trace mineral essential of vitamin B12 and functions of activate enzymes
Deficiency symptom include pernicious anemia
Toxicity symptoms include polycythemia and increased blood volume

Cobalt (Co)


Trace mineral facilitates hemoglobin synthesis and lipid metabolism
Deficiency symptoms include anemia, central nervous system abnormalities, and abnormal electrocardiograms
Toxicity causes Wilson's disease

Cooper (Cu)


Trace mineral that aids in the formation of bones and teeth and prevents osteoporosis
Deficiency symptoms include increase susceptibility of dental cavities

Fluorine (F)


Trace mineral that assists the regulation of cell metabolism and basal metabolic rate
Deficiency symptom includes goiters

Iodine (I)


Trace mineral that assists in oxygen transport and cell oxidation
Deficiency symptom includes anemia
Toxicity symptom includes hemochromatosis

Iron (Fe)


Trace mineral facilitates proper bone structure and functions as an enzyme component in general metabolism

Manganese (Mn)


Trace mineral that is a synergistic antioxidant with vitamin E
Deficiency symptoms includes Keshan's disease
Toxicity symptoms include physical defects of fingernails and toenails, nausea, and abdominal pain

Selenium (Se)