Oncology: General Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Oncology: General Overview Deck (23):
1

General Signs and Symptoms of Cancer: CAUTION

C- change in bowel/bladder routine
A- A sore that will not heal
U- Unusual bleeding/discharge
T- Thickening/lump develops
I- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O- Obvious change in wart/mole
N- Nagging cough/hoarseness

2

Primary Prevention

Screening high risk population
Elimination of modifiable risk factors
Natural agents to prevent cancer
Cancer vaccine

3

Secondary Prevention

Early detection
Selective preventative pharmacological agents (Tamoxifen)
Multifactorial risk reduction

4

Tertiary Prevention

Prevent disability that can occur secondary to cancer and its treatment
Manage symptoms
Limit complications

5

Epithelium Tumor Classification

Carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma

6

Pigmented Cells Tumor Classfication

Malignant melanoma

7

Connective Tissues Tumor Classfication

Sarcomas

8

Nerve Tissue Tumor Classification

Astrocytoma
Glioma
Neurilemma Sarcoma
Neuroblastoma
Retinoblastoma

9

Lymphoid Tissue Tumor Classification

Lymphoma

10

Hematopoietic Tissue Tumor Classification

Leukemia
Myelodysplasia
Myeloproliferative syndromes
Multiple myeloma

11

TNM Staging

T- size and extent of primary tumor
N- lymph node involvement
M- Presence of metastasis

12

Stage: Early malignancy that is present only in the layer of cells in which it began. For most cancers, this is referred to as carcinoma in situ

Stage 0

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Stage: Malignancy limited to the tissue with no lymph node involvement or metastasis

Stage I

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Stage: Malignancy spreading into adjacent tissues; lymph nodes may show signs of micrometastases

Stage II

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Stage: Malignancy that has spread to adjacent tissue showing signs of fixation to deep structures. Lymph node involvement is high.

Stage III

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Stage: Malignancy that has metastasized beyond the primary site

Stage IV

17

Adjuvant

Treatment provided, in addition to other cure interventions, with the intention of preventing cancer recurrence

18

Differentiated cells

Cells that have matured from less specific to a more specific cell type

19

Dysplasia

Abnormal development of cells or tissue that is often an early sign of neoplasia

20

Hyperplasia

increase in cell number that may be normal or abnormal depending on additional characteristics

21

Metaplasia

A change in a cell from one type to another that may be normal or abnormal

22

Neoadjuvant

Chemotherapy or radiation given prior to surgical oncology intervention

23

Undifferentiated cells

Cells which have not differentiated into a specific type (e.g. primitive, embryonic) or have no special structure or function