Nutrition-Vitamins Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Nutrition-Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition-Vitamins Deck (61):
1

short bowel syndrome

signs of nutrient malabsorption in a patient with removal of jejunum (primary site for absorption of LOTS)

2

trouble seeing at night is a sign of ____ deficiency

vitamin A

3

loss of appetite is a sign of _____ deficiency

zinc

4

ataxic gait is a sign of _____ deficiency

vitamin E

5

easy bruising is a sign of _____ deficiency

vitamins K, E

6

what is the most supported/confident dietary reference intake value?

RDA

7

adequate intake is used when?

RDA cannot be determined; there is less data

8

what are the 4 fat soluble vitamines?

DAKE

9

malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins occurs because?

they share the same transport system as dietary fatty acids

10

sources of vit A

retinoids (egg, dairy), carotenoids = precurser (yellow/red fruits and veggies, leafy greens)

11

how quickly can vit A deprivation present with symptoms?

NOT quickly? must deplete liver and plasma first, takes weeks

12

loss of appetite, retarded growth, rough scaly skin (follicular kyperkeratosis), nephritis, ocular problems (Bitot's spots) are all signs of?

vitamin A deficiency

13

causes of vit A deficiency

malabsorption disorders, chronic nephritis, intestinal parasites, alcoholism

14

signs of vit A toxicity

itchy skin, bone/muscle pain, cirrhosis, conjunctivitis

15

sources of vit D

sterols in body + UV light OR food

16

D2 is found in _____, while D3 is found in _____

plants; fish and mammals

17

ongoing research regarding vitamin D includes..

gene regulation, obesity, diabetes, cancer, CVD

18

there is an incredibly high rate of vitamin ____ deficiency

vit D

19

severe vit D deficiency is associated with what 2 diseases

rickets, osteomalacia

20

vitamin D toxicity is (easy/hard) to achieve, and results in?

hard; hypercalcemia and calcifications

21

sources of vit E

vegetable oils, nuts, leafy greens, cereal

22

functions of vit E

antioxidant, immune function, DNA repair

23

who needs especially high vitamin E?

breast-feeding women

24

vitamin ____ supplements contain significantly more than people need

vit E

25

what form of vitamin E is the strongest anti-oxidant and favored form (but not the form in most american diets)?

alpha-tocopherol

26

vitamin E deficiency is (rare/common)? Vitamin E toxicity is (rare/common)?

rare; rare

27

signs of vit E deficiency

neurologic problems, nerve degen in hands/feet

28

who is at risk for vit E deficiency?

fat malabsorptive disorders, genetic defects, premature infants, alcoholics

29

signs of vit E toxicity

increased bleeding, impaired blood coagulation, ?cancer risk

30

sources of vit K

dark leafy greens, broccoli, cabbage, bacteria in GI tract

31

vit K functions

blood coag, healthy bones

32

_____ supplementation can cause toxic levels of vit K, resulting in?

menadione; hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice

33

name 3 water soluble vitamins

vit C, B vitamins, folic acid

34

functions of vit C

potent antioxidant, co-factor for enzymes involved with synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and norepi

35

severe def of vit C causes ____, which presents with?

scurvy; bruising, gum and dental problems, dry hair and skin, anemia

36

causes of vit C deficiency

intake, malabsorption, certain cancer, kidney dz + hemodialysis, smoking (need more)

37

thiamin is also called?

vit B1

38

sources of thiamin

grains

39

wet beriberi affects the ___ system

cardiovascular

40

dry beriberi affects the ____ system

nervous

41

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is common in _____ , due to deficiency in ____, and results in?

alcoholics; thiamin; encephalopathy & memory issues

42

who get's thiamin deficiency?

dialysis patients, malabsorption

43

niacin (B3) comes mainly from?

meat, fish, poultry, grains

44

function of niacin

redox rxn co-enzyme; required for energy metabolism

45

a deficiency of niacin causes?

pellagra

46

signs of pellagra/niacin deficiency

4 D's = diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

47

niacin supplements can cause ____ if taken in excess

flushing and GI sx

48

B6 is essential for ____, folid acid is essential for _____, and B12 is necessary for _____

RBC metabolism; rapid cell division; DNA synthesis

49

B6 deficiency results in?

dermatitis, glossitis, convulsions

50

folic acid deficiency results in?

megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea, fatigue

51

B12 deficiency results in?

megaloblastic anemia, peripheral nerve degen, glossitis

52

causes of B6/B12/folate deficiency

inadequate intake, liver dz, certain drugs

53

who is at risk for B6 deficiency?

asthmatic children

54

at risk for B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia or GI disorders

55

B6 toxicity causes?

neuropathy

56

folic acid toxicity results in?

damaging effects of B12 deficiency

57

sources of iodine

salt, seafood, kelp

58

iodine deficiency results in?

goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism

59

sources of zinc

meat, seafood, whole grains

60

fnc of zinc

enzyme cofactor

61

zinc deficiency causes?

growth retardation, impaired immune, mental lethargy, loss of taste, hypogonadism