Flashcards in Nutrition-Vitamins Deck (61):
short bowel syndrome
signs of nutrient malabsorption in a patient with removal of jejunum (primary site for absorption of LOTS)
trouble seeing at night is a sign of ____ deficiency
loss of appetite is a sign of _____ deficiency
ataxic gait is a sign of _____ deficiency
easy bruising is a sign of _____ deficiency
vitamins K, E
what is the most supported/confident dietary reference intake value?
adequate intake is used when?
RDA cannot be determined; there is less data
what are the 4 fat soluble vitamines?
malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins occurs because?
they share the same transport system as dietary fatty acids
sources of vit A
retinoids (egg, dairy), carotenoids = precurser (yellow/red fruits and veggies, leafy greens)
how quickly can vit A deprivation present with symptoms?
NOT quickly? must deplete liver and plasma first, takes weeks
loss of appetite, retarded growth, rough scaly skin (follicular kyperkeratosis), nephritis, ocular problems (Bitot's spots) are all signs of?
vitamin A deficiency
causes of vit A deficiency
malabsorption disorders, chronic nephritis, intestinal parasites, alcoholism
signs of vit A toxicity
itchy skin, bone/muscle pain, cirrhosis, conjunctivitis
sources of vit D
sterols in body + UV light OR food
D2 is found in _____, while D3 is found in _____
plants; fish and mammals
ongoing research regarding vitamin D includes..
gene regulation, obesity, diabetes, cancer, CVD
there is an incredibly high rate of vitamin ____ deficiency
severe vit D deficiency is associated with what 2 diseases
vitamin D toxicity is (easy/hard) to achieve, and results in?
hard; hypercalcemia and calcifications
sources of vit E
vegetable oils, nuts, leafy greens, cereal
functions of vit E
antioxidant, immune function, DNA repair
who needs especially high vitamin E?
vitamin ____ supplements contain significantly more than people need
what form of vitamin E is the strongest anti-oxidant and favored form (but not the form in most american diets)?
vitamin E deficiency is (rare/common)? Vitamin E toxicity is (rare/common)?
signs of vit E deficiency
neurologic problems, nerve degen in hands/feet
who is at risk for vit E deficiency?
fat malabsorptive disorders, genetic defects, premature infants, alcoholics
signs of vit E toxicity
increased bleeding, impaired blood coagulation, ?cancer risk
sources of vit K
dark leafy greens, broccoli, cabbage, bacteria in GI tract
vit K functions
blood coag, healthy bones
_____ supplementation can cause toxic levels of vit K, resulting in?
menadione; hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice
name 3 water soluble vitamins
vit C, B vitamins, folic acid
functions of vit C
potent antioxidant, co-factor for enzymes involved with synthesis of collagen, carnitine, and norepi
severe def of vit C causes ____, which presents with?
scurvy; bruising, gum and dental problems, dry hair and skin, anemia
causes of vit C deficiency
intake, malabsorption, certain cancer, kidney dz + hemodialysis, smoking (need more)
thiamin is also called?
sources of thiamin
wet beriberi affects the ___ system
dry beriberi affects the ____ system
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is common in _____ , due to deficiency in ____, and results in?
alcoholics; thiamin; encephalopathy & memory issues
who get's thiamin deficiency?
dialysis patients, malabsorption
niacin (B3) comes mainly from?
meat, fish, poultry, grains
function of niacin
redox rxn co-enzyme; required for energy metabolism
a deficiency of niacin causes?
signs of pellagra/niacin deficiency
4 D's = diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
niacin supplements can cause ____ if taken in excess
flushing and GI sx
B6 is essential for ____, folid acid is essential for _____, and B12 is necessary for _____
RBC metabolism; rapid cell division; DNA synthesis
B6 deficiency results in?
dermatitis, glossitis, convulsions
folic acid deficiency results in?
megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea, fatigue
B12 deficiency results in?
megaloblastic anemia, peripheral nerve degen, glossitis
causes of B6/B12/folate deficiency
inadequate intake, liver dz, certain drugs
who is at risk for B6 deficiency?
at risk for B12 deficiency
pernicious anemia or GI disorders
B6 toxicity causes?
folic acid toxicity results in?
damaging effects of B12 deficiency
sources of iodine
salt, seafood, kelp
iodine deficiency results in?
goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism
sources of zinc
meat, seafood, whole grains
fnc of zinc