Flashcards in Obesity Deck (49)
What is obesity?
condition when an individual has a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2
what does BMI measure?
weight relative to height
- strongly correlates with total fat content in adults
- there are some exceptions - muscle mass etc.
what BMI is considered underweight?
what BMI is considered healthy?
what BMI is considered overweight?
what BMI is considereed obese?
what are ways to diagnose obesity?
-waist to hip ratio (WHR)
with weight circumference, what values indicate obesity?
> or = 40 for men
> or = 35 for women
with waist to hip ratio (WHR), what values indicate obesity?
> or = to 0.9 for men
> or = to 0.8 for women
in both men and women, a WHR of > or = to what increases health risks?
What is skin fold measurements?
used to assess subcutaneous fat by comparing it to population strandards
what is bioelectric impedance?
measures conduction speed of a small electric current in the body
what are methods used to assess body fat content?
- underwater weighing
what are the metabolic effects associated with obesity?
-dyslipiemia (increase in serum TAGs mostly VLDL)
what are the 2 kinds of fat based on location?
define visceral fat?
visceral, abdominal fat, and cytokines are released into the PORTAL VEIN and are taken up by the liver and can contribute to HIGHER VLDL in the blog
define subcutaneous fat?
fat released from subcutaneous fat enters GENERAL CIRCULATION and is used up by the muscles prior to reaching the liver!
what does an apple shaped body indicate?
higher risk of CHD and syndrome X/metabolic syndrome
higher adipose tissue: higher amount of visceral fat (bad)
what does a pear shaped body indicate?
indicates higher amounts of subcutaneous fat
what does modest weight gain result in an increase of?
adipocyte size (hypertrophy)
what happens to adipocytes with excessive weight gain?
increase in both size and number (hypertrophy and hypoerplasia)
what percentage of dietary fat is TAGs?
what percent of chylomicrons are TAGs?
what percentage of adipocytes are TAGs?
as BMI increases from 20 to 30, the body's TAG content does what?
adipocytes secrete several hormones that play a role in what?
-appetite control/weight gain
adipocytes have 2 major functions, what are they?
what is hypothesis I regarding the factors contributing to obesity?
a biologically predetermined "set point" for body weight for most individuals
what is hypothesis II regarding the factors contributing to obesity?
a "settling point" that reflects food intake, energy expenditure, and other factors
what are the major factors that regulate body weight?
- genetic - validated by twins
mutations in what genees or receptors can rpoduce hyperphagia (Abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food) and massive obestiy?
mutations in leptin gene or its receptors!
what is leptin?
plays a key role in
through its actions on the hypothalamus
what does insulin do?
what are the long term signals?
what are the short term signals?
ultimately, what does weight gain result from?
inbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure
what does regulation involve?
what tissues are affected with the metabolic changes associated with obesity?
what is metabolic syndrome?
a clustering of atherosclerotic CVD risk factors that include
-visceral adipocity (obesity)
-systemic proinflammatory state
what several key compoennts lead to metabolic syndrome?
there is a strong correlation between what and what?
weight gain and insulin resistance eventually
what does insulin stimulate?
-increased aa uptake
what does insulin inhibit?
what are the pharmacological agents used to manage obesity?
what is sibutramine?
appetite suppressant - increases the feeling of fullness - taken off market in US?
what is orlistat?
gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor, inhibits the digestion of TAGs and therefore reduces dietary TAG absorption
what are the surgical options for managing obesity?
ileo gastric bypass
***must have BMI over 35!!!!!!
what is gastric banding?
decrease the size of stomach and therefore reduces food intake