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Biochemistry Post Midterm > Obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obesity Deck (49):
1

What is obesity?

condition when an individual has a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2

2

what does BMI measure?

weight relative to height
- strongly correlates with total fat content in adults
- there are some exceptions - muscle mass etc.

3

what BMI is considered underweight?

< 18.5

4

what BMI is considered healthy?

18.5-24.9

5

what BMI is considered overweight?

25-29.9

6

what BMI is considereed obese?

> 30

7

what are ways to diagnose obesity?

-BMI calculation
-waist circumference
-waist to hip ratio (WHR)

8

with weight circumference, what values indicate obesity?

> or = 40 for men
> or = 35 for women

9

with waist to hip ratio (WHR), what values indicate obesity?

> or = to 0.9 for men
> or = to 0.8 for women

10

in both men and women, a WHR of > or = to what increases health risks?

1

11

What is skin fold measurements?

used to assess subcutaneous fat by comparing it to population strandards

12

what is bioelectric impedance?

measures conduction speed of a small electric current in the body

13

what are methods used to assess body fat content?

-skin fold
-bioelectric impedance
- underwater weighing

14

what are the metabolic effects associated with obesity?

-dyslipiemia (increase in serum TAGs mostly VLDL)
-glucose intolerance
-insulin resistance

15

what are the 2 kinds of fat based on location?

visceral (worse!)
subcutaneous

16

define visceral fat?

visceral, abdominal fat, and cytokines are released into the PORTAL VEIN and are taken up by the liver and can contribute to HIGHER VLDL in the blog

17

define subcutaneous fat?

fat released from subcutaneous fat enters GENERAL CIRCULATION and is used up by the muscles prior to reaching the liver!

18

what does an apple shaped body indicate?

higher risk of CHD and syndrome X/metabolic syndrome

higher adipose tissue: higher amount of visceral fat (bad)

19

what does a pear shaped body indicate?

indicates higher amounts of subcutaneous fat

20

what does modest weight gain result in an increase of?

adipocyte size (hypertrophy)

21

what happens to adipocytes with excessive weight gain?

increase in both size and number (hypertrophy and hypoerplasia)

22

what percentage of dietary fat is TAGs?

90%

23

what percent of chylomicrons are TAGs?

85%

24

what percentage of adipocytes are TAGs?

90%

25

as BMI increases from 20 to 30, the body's TAG content does what?

doubles!

26

adipocytes secrete several hormones that play a role in what?

-appetite control/weight gain
-inflammation
-insulin resistance

27

adipocytes have 2 major functions, what are they?

fat storage
endocrine functions

28

what is hypothesis I regarding the factors contributing to obesity?

a biologically predetermined "set point" for body weight for most individuals

29

what is hypothesis II regarding the factors contributing to obesity?

a "settling point" that reflects food intake, energy expenditure, and other factors

30

what are the major factors that regulate body weight?

- genetic - validated by twins
-environmental (lifestyle/behavioral)

31

mutations in what genees or receptors can rpoduce hyperphagia (Abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food) and massive obestiy?

mutations in leptin gene or its receptors!

32

what is leptin?

plays a key role in
-weight gain
-appetite suppression
-energy expenditure
through its actions on the hypothalamus

33

what does insulin do?

dampens appetite

34

what are the long term signals?

leptin
insulin

35

what are the short term signals?

ghrelin
CCK

36

ultimately, what does weight gain result from?

inbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure

37

what does regulation involve?

genetic
environmental
hormonal factors...

38

what tissues are affected with the metabolic changes associated with obesity?

liver
muscle
adipose

39

what is metabolic syndrome?

a clustering of atherosclerotic CVD risk factors that include
-visceral adipocity (obesity)
-insulin resistance
-low HDL
-systemic proinflammatory state

40

what several key compoennts lead to metabolic syndrome?

-HTN
-dyslipidemia
-INSULIN RESISTANCE
-chronic inflammation
-impaired fibrinolysis
-procoagulation
-CENTRAL OBESITY

41

there is a strong correlation between what and what?

weight gain and insulin resistance eventually

42

what does insulin stimulate?

-lipogenesis
-increased aa uptake
-protein syntehsis
-glycogen storage

43

what does insulin inhibit?

-lipolysis
-gluconeogenesis
-glycogenolysis

44

what are the pharmacological agents used to manage obesity?

Sibutramine
orlistat

45

what is sibutramine?

appetite suppressant - increases the feeling of fullness - taken off market in US?

46

what is orlistat?

gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor, inhibits the digestion of TAGs and therefore reduces dietary TAG absorption

47

what are the surgical options for managing obesity?

gastric banding
ileo gastric bypass

***must have BMI over 35!!!!!!

48

what is gastric banding?

decrease the size of stomach and therefore reduces food intake

49

what is ileo gastric bypass?

decrease the size of stomach pouch and ddecrease the absoprtion of nutrients from intestine