Serum Proteins Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry Post Midterm > Serum Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Serum Proteins Deck (78):
1

what are the proteins in the alpha 1 band?

alpha 1 antitrypsin
alpha fetoprotein
transcortin

2

what are the proteins in the alpha 2 band?

alpha 2 macroglobulin
ceruloplasmin
haptoglobin

3

what are the proteins in the beta band?

transferrin
hemopexin
beta lipoprotin

4

what are the proteins in the gamma band?

immunoglobins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE) - synthesized by plasma cells

5

which bands contain proteins synthesized by the liver?

albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta

6

which band contains proteins synthesized by plasma cells?

gamma

7

what happens when albumin levels are low?

edema

8

where are albumin glycosylated?

blood at high BGL

9

where is albumin made?

liver

10

how are the aa in albumin stabilized?

internal disulfide bonds

11

what is serum albumin an indicator of?

nutritional status
liver synthetic function

12

what do low albumin levels indicate?

severe liver damage
inflammation

13

what does albumin presence in urine indicate?

damage to the basement membrane of the glomerulus (kidney)

14

where is alpha 1 antitrypsin made?

liver, N-glycosylated (asparagine)

15

What does alpha 1 antitrypsin do?

inhibits neutrophil elastase

16

what does cigarette smoke do to alpha 1 antitrypsin?

oxidizes the methoinine residue that is needed to bind to elastase - now the alpha 1 trypsin isn't working

17

what is alpha fetoprotein a marker for?

cancer of liver, ovaries or testies

18

what do high maternal levels of AFP indicate?

fetal neural tube defects - spina bifida etc.

19

what do low maternal levels of AFP indicate?

down syndrome

20

where is transcortin synthesized?

in the liver and the blood

21

what does retinol binding protein do?

transport retinol (vitamin a) in blood from liver to peripheral tissues

22

how is retinol stored in the liver?

retinyl esters

23

what does alpha 2 macroglobulun do?

protease (plasmin anad thrombin) inhibitor

24

what is low levels of ceruloplasmin characteristic of?

Wilsons disease
- due to less attachment of copper to ceruloplasmin - the copper accumulates in the tissues = Kayser-fleischer rings

25

what does hepatoglobin do?

binds to free hemoglobin so its not lost!

26

what does transferrin do?

takes the ferric ions (Fe3+) made form ceruloplasmin and transports it to intestine, liver and bone marrow and spleen

27

what does hemopexin do?

binds to free heme and prevents iron loss by kidneys

28

what stimulates the synthesis of positive acute phase reactants?

cytokines

29

what will spike (increase fraction) with acute inflammation?

alpha 1 and alpha 2

30

what is CPR measured by?

specific test - only present during inflammation

31

what are the 5 proteins in the gamma band?

IgM, IgE, IgA, IgD, IgG

32

how is retinol stored in the liver?

retinyl esters

33

what does alpha 2 macroglobulun do?

protease (plasmin anad thrombin) inhibitor

34

what does alpha 2 macroglobulun do?

protease (plasmin anad thrombin) inhibitor

35

what does alpha 2 macroglobulun do?

protease (plasmin anad thrombin) inhibitor

36

what is low levels of ceruloplasmin characteristic of?

Wilsons disease
- due to less attachment of copper to ceruloplasmin - the copper accumulates in the tissues = Kayser-fleischer rings

37

what is low levels of ceruloplasmin characteristic of?

Wilsons disease
- due to less attachment of copper to ceruloplasmin - the copper accumulates in the tissues = Kayser-fleischer rings

38

what is low levels of ceruloplasmin characteristic of?

Wilsons disease
- due to less attachment of copper to ceruloplasmin - the copper accumulates in the tissues = Kayser-fleischer rings

39

what does hepatoglobin do?

binds to free hemoglobin so its not lost!

40

what does hepatoglobin do?

binds to free hemoglobin so its not lost!

41

what does transferrin do?

takes the ferric ions (Fe3+) made form ceruloplasmin and transports it to intestine, liver and bone marrow and spleen

42

what does transferrin do?

takes the ferric ions (Fe3+) made form ceruloplasmin and transports it to intestine, liver and bone marrow and spleen

43

what does hemopexin do?

binds to free heme and prevents iron loss by kidneys

44

what does hemopexin do?

binds to free heme and prevents iron loss by kidneys

45

what stimulates the synthesis of positive acute phase reactants?

cytokines

46

what will spike (increase fraction) with acute inflammation?

alpha 1 and alpha 2

47

what is CPR measured by?

specific test - only present during inflammation

48

what are the 5 proteins in the gamma band?

IgM, IgE, IgA, IgD, IgG

49

Talk about IgM

found in blood and lymph
1st antibody produced in response to infection

50

Talk about IgM

found in blood and lymph
1st antibody produced in response to infection

51

talk about IgG

found in all body fluids
small, most common antibody
produced on repeated expsure to infection
crosses placenta and give immunity to baby

52

talk about IgG

found in all body fluids
small, most common antibody
produced on repeated expsure to infection
crosses placenta and give immunity to baby

53

talk about IgE

found in lung, skin, mucous membranes
secreted in allergi reactions

54

talk about IgE

found in lung, skin, mucous membranes
secreted in allergi reactions

55

talk about IgA

found in body secretions
protects body surfaces

56

talk about IgA

found in body secretions
protects body surfaces

57

talk about IgD

role in serum uncertain

58

talk about IgD

role in serum uncertain

59

what does albumin bind to and transport

-free calcium
-free fatty acids
-hormones - thyroxine
-unconjugated bilirubin

60

what is the binding of albumin to Ca2+ influenced by? explain?

influence by pH - if there is high pH or alkalosis, it makes albumin more negative which increases albumins affinity for calcium - so now, more free calcium is taken up from blood and bound to albumin. Therefore, you get hypocalacemia because the calcium is out of blood and in albumin

61

in what state does albumin transport free fatty acids?

fasting state

62

what hormone does albumin bind to?

thyroxine

63

what are the 2 major causes of hypoalbuminemia?

decreased synthesis of albumin
- malnutrition - Kwarsakor disease
-chronic liver cirrhosis
increase loss of albumin
- severe burns
-loss of albumin in urine

64

where is alpha fetoprotein abundant?

fetal plasma

65

alpha 1 antitrypsin exists in polymorphic forms, which form is normal and which is defective?

M allell is normal
Z and S allele are defective

66

individuals who are homozygous for Z allele (ZZ) have a risk of developing what?

pulomnary disease
liver disease - accum. of A1AT in liver because only 15% is being secreted

67

levels of what are 10 fold increased in nephrotic syndrome?

alpha 2 macroglobulin - why? its so big, you lose albumin, but macroglobulin stays behind so its stuck

68

where are low levels of serum free hepatoglobin levels found?

in patients with acute hemolysis - can be used to monitor patients with hemolytic anemia

69

how many Fe3+ atoms can bind to 1 tranferrin?

2

70

what does Beta globin proteins have that make it overall postive charge?

LDL - have Apo B 100 which is +

71

where did CRP get its name?

reacted with the C-polypeptide of pneumococcus

71

what will you see with acute inflammation?

albumin: down
alpha 1: up
Alpha 2: up
Beta: normal
gamma: normal

72

what will you see with liver cirrhosis?

albumin: down
alpha 1: normal
Alpha 2: down ish
Beta: up
gamma: up
IgA = UP

73

what will you see with nephrotic syndrome?

albumin: down - excreted in urine
alpha 1: down
Alpha 2: up - macroglobulins (too big)
Beta: down
gamma: down

74

what will you see with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency?

albumin: normal
alpha 1: down
Alpha 2: normal
Beta: normal
gamma: normal

75

what will you see with hypogammaglobulinemia?

albumin: normal
alpha 1: normal
Alpha 2: normal
Beta: normal
gamma: down

76

what will you see with multiple myeloma?

albumin: normal
alpha 1: normal
Alpha 2: normal
Beta: normal
gamma: up

77

what will you see with multiple myeloma?

albumin: normal
alpha 1: normal
Alpha 2: normal
Beta: normal
gamma: up