Integrated Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry Post Midterm > Integrated Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integrated Metabolism Deck (34):
1

where is the majority of our energy reserve?

adipose - TAG 83%

2

what two ways can adipocytes metabolically turnover TAGS?

mobilization = lipolysis (HS Lipase)
Synthesis = lipgenesis (LPL)

3

what are the precursor molecules needed for the synthesis of TAG?

glycerol 3-P
fatty acids

4

in what state does the synthesis of TAGs occur?

well fed state

5

what does leptin induce the expression of and activate of?

UCP 2

AMPK

6

what is obestiy linked with?

insulin resistance

7

what is adipose tissue regulated by?

nutritional
metabolic and
hormonal factors

8

what is lipolysis?

TAGs are hydrolyzed - broken down

9

what is esterification?

TAGs are formed - the process

10

what are the precursor molecules for the synthesis of TAGs?

glycerol 3 P
FA

11

what has all the enzymes for FA synthesis? what is ironic about this

adipocytes

they only contribute to a minor amount of FA de novo synthesis in humans!

12

what enzymes do adipocytes not have?

glycerol kinase

13

what is the purpose of glycerol kinase?

Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase so they cannot metabolize the glycerol produced during triacyl glycerol degradation.

This glycerol is instead shuttled to the liver via the blood where it is:
phosphorylated by glycerol kinase to glycerol phosphate
converted to DHAP (dihydroxyacetone phosphate) which can participate in glycolysis or gluconeogenesis.

14

what does insulin ruling stimulate the increasing numbers of what receptors?

GLUT 4 - its insulin dependent

15

where do glycerol and CM remnants go to?

the liver

16

abdominal white adipose tissue is very responsive to what which leads to what?

epinephrine
leads to release of FA - which extra FA goes to liver and increases VLDL

17

what is thermogenin UCP -1?

mitochondrial OXPHOS uncoupler

18

what is absence of adipose tissue associated with?

severe insulin resistance

loss of hormonal signals from adipose
dysreg. of TAG and FA levels

19

what gene is associatedf with leptin and where are its receptors?

ob gene

hypothalamus

20

what does leptin induce expression of ?

UCP-2

21

what does leptin do?

supress appetite

activates AMPK

22

what is AMPK?

regulated fuel metabolism by phosphorylation - so everything that takes place at low insulin/glucagon ratio!
-increase catabolic (building ) - increased beta ox
-turn off anabolic (breakdown) - no glycogen, TAG or FA/cholsterol sun, decrease protein synthesis

23

what is obesity linked to?

insulin resistance - hyperinsulinemia

24

what does insulin ruling stimulate the increasing numbers of what receptors?

GLUT 4 - its insulin dependent

25

where do glycerol and CM remnants go to?

the liver

26

abdominal white adipose tissue is very responsive to what which leads to what?

epinephrine
leads to release of FA - which extra FA goes to liver and increases VLDL

27

what is thermogenin UCP -1?

mitochondrial OXPHOS uncoupler

28

what is absence of adipose tissue associated with?

severe insulin resistance

loss of hormonal signals from adipose
dysreg. of TAG and FA levels

29

what gene is associatedf with leptin and where are its receptors?

ob gene

hypothalamus

30

what does leptin induce expression of ?

UCP-2

31

what does leptin do?

supress appetite

activates AMPK

32

what is AMPK?

regulated fuel metabolism by phosphorylation
-increase catabolic (building ) - increased beta ox
-turn off anabolic (breakdown) - no glycogen, TAG or FA/cholsterol sun, decrease protein synthesis

33

what is obesity linked to?

insulin resistance - hyperinsulinemia

34

what two things regulate glycolysis and glycogen degradation in muscles?

AMP and Ca2+