Flashcards in observational and self report techniques Deck (12)
what is an observation ?
An observation is when a researcher watches or listens to participants engaged in the behavior being studied.
what are the different observations types (involvement of researcher)
Non-participant observation- Researcher is not directly involved with interacting with the participant .
participant observation- Researcher is directly involved with interacting with the participant .
what are the different observations types (observer knowledge)
Covert observation-Psychologist doesn't reveal their identity , group doesn't know they are being observed.
overt observation-Psychologist does reveal their identity , group does know they are being observed.
what are the different observations types (control)
Naturalistic observation- Researcher observes participant in their own environment and no deliberate manipulation of the IV.
Controlled observation- Researcher observes participant in a controlled environment and there is deliberate manipulation of the IV.
evaluation of controlled observation can apply for the other categories due to overlap.
+)cause and effect can be determined
+)Ev's controlled for
+) rich and complex information obtained
-)lower ecological validity and mundane realism
-)Observers effects, ie they change their behavior as they know they are being observed (demand characteristics)
-) risk of observer bias
evaluation of naturalistic observation can apply for the other categories due to overlap.
+) Participants usually unaware of observation so there is reduced chance of observer effects ( psychologist find it acceptable to observe people without their knowledge in public spaces)
+)High mundane realism and ecological validity
+)Useful when unable to or unethical to manipulate variables
-)Cant control EV's
-) Cant determine cause and effect easily
-)Risk of observer bias.
What is self reporting?
Self reporting is when participants provide details of their own feelings, thoughts and behaviors to researchers.
What are two types of self reporting techniques.
Interviews-Researchers ask questions in face to face situations
Questionnaires-Participants are given a written set of questions and instructions on how to record their answers. Focuses on their behavior, opinions beliefs and attitude.
Structured Interviews- All participants are asked the same questions in the same order. This provides quantative data.
Unstructured Interview- An informal conversational exchange, that is usually in depth. this provides qualative giving a description of what people think/feel.
Semi structured-This type of interview combines structured and unstructured techniques.
Closed questions-requires participants to answer (yes/no) which is quantitative data. Able to collect and display information quickly and cheaply. Make it easy for specific questions to be answered.
Open questions- Open questions allow people to answer in their own words , this allows for lots of information to be received and researchers can pursue a new line of enquiry. It creates qualitative data
+)Complicated or sensitive issues are dealt with better in interviews
+)Misunderstandings can be clarified
-) A risk of interviewer effects such as affecting the readers answers inadvertently and can be due to manner , appearance or even gender.
-)Risk of social desirability bias. This is when people lie to present themselves in a better light. Which can be caused by the topic being socially sensitive.
-)Training is needed for the interviewer which is expensive and time consuming