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age of expansion

2. crucial factor in the European transition from the agrarian economy of Middle Ages to a commercial and industrial capitalistic system 3. led Europeans into new and lasting contacts with non-European peoples that inaugurated a new age of world history


Europe and the outside world

1. never completely lost touch with outside world, contacts with non European civilization remained limited until the end of the 15th century


catholic europe

1. confined to one geographic area, crusades = failure


the travels of john mandeville

1. spoke of realms filled with precious stones and gold 2. other lands were more frightening and considerably less appealing 3. some people were scary and evil



1. charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians 3. proved great value for voyages in European waters 4. drawn on a flat scale and took no account of the curvature of the earth 5. little of use for oversea voyages



geography, had world map and book availble to eruopeans, showed three major landmasses and two oceans (not accurate), understimated circumference of eath


seaworthy ships

used axial rubber and lateen sails to make ships strong enought o resist wind and to fight and to carry goods and go long distance


before knowledge of sailing technology

1. sailors used a quadrant and their knowledge of the position of the Pole star to ascertain their latitude 2. below the equator this technique is useless


growing knowledge of the wind patterns of the Atlantic

first, they when to the coast of West Africa and met strong winds from north, second time: caught western winds


prince Henry the naviator

motive: seeking chrisian kingdom, trade opporunties for porugese, speading chrisanity, found school for navigators, led portugese in exploration of Africa


Portuguese fleets

went to western coast of Africa to search for gold, came to the sengal river and brought back black Africans


Portuguese in Indian

1. dias
2. heard of route to Indian around southern tip of Africa
3. gama
4. wanted to destroy Arab shipping and establish monopoly (blocked enterance to red sea)
5. Alberugee (goa)


Bartholomeu Dias

1.took advantage of westerly winds in South Atlantic to round the Cape of Good hope, but feared a mutiny from his crew and returned


Vasco de Gama

after Dias, went on the east of africa, then reach southeastern coast of Inida (calcuit), found spices but no Chrisianitans


Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque

1. set up port facilities at Goa, on the western coast of Indian south 2. wanted to control malaca b/c provide porguese with away station on the route ot the moluccas, and help destroy Arab spice trade)


in search of spice

1. malacca (albequere and massacre Arab population)
2. china and spiceislands (treaty = purchase and exchange of cloves)
3. go tcontrol of spice trade from Muslim traders
4. were limited (trading posts only in China and Inida, no power and deisre to colonize)


economic motives

1. guns and ships (at first, modest, but then heavily armed, able to intimidate and inflict defeats)
2. effective use of techniquies
3. their tactics


why go on voyages

1. fanastic lands (literature works, travles of john mandeville and stories about chrisitan kingdoms)
2. marco polo got to kublai khan
3. mongols opened doors to central Asia
4. conquests of ottoman turks and break up of mongol empire = reduced traffic to eat (posbility of reaching eat)
5. ecnomic motive (finding new areas of trade, spice, and gold and silver)
6. religious seils (connect heathen to chrisianity)


what made voyages possible

1. growth of centralizied monarchies during Renaissance (monarchies increase authroity and resrouces ) 2. maps (portalnai, and geography) 3. ships 4. knowledge of wind pattersn in altnaic ocean



reached destination by saling across the Atlantic


Chrisopher columbus

thought the circumference of eath less than what everyone else believed, believed asia was larger, felt asia could be reached by sailing west, instead of sailing around africa), funded by spanish, believed he reached Asia (told king and queen that he find gold and natives to convert),


new voyages

john cabot (new england coast), cabral (south america), vespucci (letters about new worl), balboa (panama, reach pacific ocean), magellan AFTER COLUMBUS



passed strait of magellan, pacifc ocean and philipies (was killed there)


treaty of TOrdesillas

divided world into portugese and spnaish spheres, spanish had more



spanish conquerors, motivation: glory, greed, religious crusading zeil, weapons organizational skills and determintion = their success



many civilizations (maya, aztecs and inca), central america and mexico



calender, buildings, agarian people (develop farming and parch of city states), Yucatan penninsula



northern mexico, tenochiltan (capital), buildings, causeways (linking empire), aquedcut, oustanding warriors (wanted to control other areas), kingdom: semiindepdent terriotires (ruled by local lords who gave money to ruler as sign of authroity)


hernan Cortes

AZTECS CONQUERED, went to TEnochitialin (made alliances on the way, tlaxaclan), met Moctezuma (aztec monarch), after given gifts and stuff took him hostage and pillage city, people revolted and drove cortes away, but then afffected by small pox, cortes came back with army from Tlaxcalan



thought cortes was a representative of Quetzonola (god that departed and promised he would return), gave him gifts and palace



landed cmapgain that brought region to their control, Cuzco was their captial, Pachikaiti (ruler), divided region into four quarters (ruled by governor) then provinces (ruled by governor too), great builders (road from chile to columbia)



INCA, spanish, advantages: small pox hit Incas, guns weapons horses and cannons, inca emperor affected by small pox (two sons then fought for throne, civil war broke out), took Atachandra then Cuzco (with allies)


Administration of Spanish Empir

1. econmedia 2. vicerorys 3. catholic monarchs of spain 3. diseases 4. protest againt harsh treament



queen declread them to be subjects of Castile and insituted ecnomeida, permitted spanriards to collect tribute from natives and use them as laboers, natives were to be protected, paid wages, free to carry out their system of governemt and superivse their spiritual needs, but settlers pursed their own desires (made them work on planations and mines)


natives toll

dieases (small pox, miseasles, typhus), they were not immune


protests against harsh treametn

Dominaican Friars, Casas (abolished ecnomieda sytem and promised more protection for salves)



possesion divded into New Spain (mexico city was the center) and Peru (viceroy in Lima), they were expected to keep clam and justic, were kings chief and military officer, aided by audiences (also supreme judicial bodies)


Catholic monarches of Spain

extensive rights over eccalstional affairs in the new world (appoints clergy, colect fees, superivse), misionaries went to convert natives, conversion of Indians brought structure of Catholisicm to New World