summer #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in summer #2 Deck (36):


money payments that substituted military services


lord vassal (political instability)

replaced by contract based on money, scutage, hire professional soldiers


new relationships based on political advantage (political instability)

nobles (who suffered from declining rents and social uncertainties) looked for opportunities to advance power and wealth at expense of other noble fractions and of their monarchs and went to royal courts


kings problems (political instability)

monarchs not direct descendants of rulers of 1300, struggled with nobles who vied to gain material advantages for themselves


14th century monarchs of old dynasty

losing revenue (shift to using mercenary soldiers, and traditional revenues (rent from population), new revenue causes there to be taxes, then asking for parliament, then Parliament gaining more power


political instability

lord vassal, new relationships based on political advantage, kings problems, and 14th century monarchs of old dynasty


Parliament increase prominence and developed its basic structure and functions during Edward's reign

king relied on Parliament to obey new taxes, king made several concessions, then at then end of the king's Edward III's reign, Parliament became an important part of English government system


Parliament begin to assure organized structure it retained to this day

great council or the house of lords, house of commons, parliament


great council

body composed of chief bishops and obbots


house of commons

representatives of shires and boroughs, begin practice of drawing up petitions



house of lords and commons


England's instability

Richard II (Edward's grandson) reign did not successfully being with peasant revolt, then Richard II was troubled by competing groups, pursuing their own interests, Henry of Lancaster (and group led by him) defeated Richard II and became king Henry IV, also civil wars called War of Roses


France's diffictulies

french monarchical state had underlying permanent weaknesses, taxes and estates general, Charles VI


french monarchical state had underlying permanent weaknesses

Capetian monarchs expand territory, but those territories still had its own laws and stuff


taxes and estates general

Philip VI needed money for 100 years war, taxed on gabelle and taille, weighed heavily on peasant and middle class, when need money for king Johnson's ransom, middle class use estates general to reform French government and tax structure, third state granted taxes in exchange for Charles dauphin to not tax without estates general permission and to allow estates general t meet on regular basis and participate in political decisions, moment got crushed


Charles VI

duke burgenly and Orleans competed for power of Charles and French monarchy, people supported Burgundian and some Oreleanist causing civil war


estates general

french parliament, representatives of clergy, nobility, and third estate


holy roman empire and Germany falling

northern Italy freed from any imperial control, Germany's failure of Hohenstaufen ended chance of centralized monarchic authority, Germany then became independent states


golden bull

elective rather than hereditary, standardized in 1356 by Gold Bull, issued by Emperor Charles IV, states four lay princes and three ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors with legal power to elect the king, GERMANY, chose German King


problems with golden bull

14th century, this ensured kings were generally weak because their ability to exercise effective power depended on extent of their family possessions, then in 15th century, three emperors claimed the throne


Italy and centralized monarchical state

replacement of republican government by tyrants, development of larger states as larger states expanded at cost of smaller ones (had to rely on condottieri)


replacement of republican government by tyrantts

because during the 14th century there was intense internal strife, city states had to resort to dictatorship, but those dictators used this force to maintain power



leaders sold services of their bands to highest bidder, Italian mercenaries



richest city state, Viscotti family established themselves as hereditary despots of Milan, giangaleazzo transformed hereditary deposit into duchy, purchased title of duke from emperor, milan duchy extend power to all of Lombardy



originally controlled y Ordinances of justice, but then popolo minuto and ciompi won their share in government, but then popolo grasso got power back


popolo grassso

dominant role in creation of new constitution called ordinances of justice, merchant industrialist class


ordinacne of justce

provided for republican government controlled by 7 major guilds, the executive power was a council of elected priors and standard bearer of justice, assisted by a number of councils with advisory and overlapping powers



rich merchant families, great council, and Senate hold actual power, doge is a figure head, council of ten became real executive power of state, expanded by establishing colonies and trading posts,



executive head of republic (Venice), figure head VENICE, originally executive head of republic


pope Boniface VIII and king Philip IV of France

1. need new revenue, Philip claimed right to tax french clergy 2. Boniface said clergy could not pay taxes without pope's consent 3. pope asserted position in letters 4. Philip IV wanted to capture pope and bring to trial 5. after Italian nobles saved pope, he died. as result, no other pope dared to renew extra-sent claims of Boniface VII


clement V

because Philip IV put pressure for the new pope to be a french man, clement V became pope, took residence in Avignon in the Holy Roman Empire


decline in papal prestige

pope stayed in Avignon, people believed the popes were captivates of french monarchy


affect of pope staying at Avignon

popes, trying to find new source of revenue to compensate for their loss of income from papal states started to tax clergy, because pope lived in splendor in Avignon, people started to criticize them


Catherine of Siena

led city of Florence to send her on a mission to pope Gregory XI in Avignon



tax on salt



hearth tax