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Flashcards in the european state in the renaissance Deck (46):
1

15th century

first half (European states continued the disintegration patterns of previous century) second half (reestablish the centralized power of monarchical governments) western europe (rulers succesfully extedned political) eastern europe (rulers weak)

2

new monarchies

France, Spain, England, reestablish the centralized power of monarchical governments,

3

affect of hundred years war on france

left it prostrate, strong french national feeling and desire to follow up 100 years war (kings use this to resseatblish their power, charles VII), king could not assert authority over nobles

4

policies of Charles VII

with the consent of the estates general got a royal army and right to ley tax

5

Louis XI

taille as permanet tax (got regular income), nobility (difficulty controlling them and did not want them to be indpentn), got more possesion after charles the bold and other posessions (created base for another strong monarchy)

6

Charles the Bold

wanted to create middle kingdom, louis XI opposed, died

7

effect of the Hundred Years' war on england

strained the English economy

8

War of Roses

lancaster vs. yok, result: henry tudor defeat last Yorkish king, tudor dynasty established

9

Henry VII

established strong monarchial government, ended privatewars (abolish livery and maintenace), star chamber (tortue) controlled activity, avoided wars (did not ask parliament for money), won favor of gentry (got support from them)

10

conquest of Iberian penninsula

middle ages, christian kingdoms went into conquest of penincular, some couuuntires came out the strongest

11

marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragaon

1. family union (not political)
2. both strengthened royal control fo governemnt( royal council replaced with midddle class lawyers who bleieved monarhces are the power of the state)
3. created strong military to replace the on they interhited
4. recognized importnce of controlling Catholic Church (able to choose important church officals in spain, created Spanish Catholic Church, clergy become einstrument for extention of royal power, institue reforms, zimenes)
5. create unity and bolster royal power
6. battled muslims (lasted 11 years, after city of Granda fell, muslims incouraged to covert)
7. isabella sent a decreee that expelled all professed Muslims

12

medieveial view on jewish and muslim people

tolerated, Spain was toleratnt

13

14th century view on jewish and muslim people

increaed persecution, jews converted (compiants that they were secertly participing Judalism led to ask pope to introduce Inquistion)

14

inquisition

used cruel effienicy to fuarnette orthodxy of converts, no authority over over practicing jews

15

The holy Roman Empire

failed to develop strog monarchical authroity (remained in hands of Hasburg dynasty)

16

Habsburg dynasty

wealthy (acquired posessions), marriages (led to gaining land), became an internaitonal power (hated by french monarchy who feared to be surrounded by hasburgs)

17

Maximilian

attempted to centralize administration (opposition), only success in marriages

18

eastern europe

achieve centrilization of teritorial sates (had obstacles like ethnic groups and religious differences)

19

polish

struggle with crown and nobility, magnetes reduced peasnty to serform and right to elect kings, unable to establish strong royal authority

20

boehmia

distrust in German and poles and slaves ledto associate with slavic neightors, weak monarchy 9nobles increased authority and wealth, Husstie wars (further discord and civl war)

21

Hungary

convertedto Roman Catholicsm (church was power and hungary became a dominant power), matthias covrnius

22

Russia

moscow princes become wealthy (used close relationship to mongol khans), ivan III

23

livery and maintenance

practice by which wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to service of their lord

24

Byzantine Empire

1. served as buffer between Muslim Middle East and Latin West 2. severely weakened by sack of Constantinople and occupation by West

25

England

1. did not posses a standing army 2. king relied on special commissions to trusted nobles to raise troops for a specific campaign

26

Ottoman Turks

1. began in northeastern Asia Minor in 13th century 2. seized lands of Seljuk Turks and Byzantine Empire 3. bypassed Constantinople and moved into Balkans 4. moved through Bulgaria and into lands of Serbians

27

after Constantinipole

1. tried to complete conquest of Balkans 2. took Wallachia 3. resistance of Hungarians kept the Turks from advancing up Danube valley 4. internal problems and the need to consolidate their eastern frontiers kept Turks from any further attacks

28

heresy

1. not a new problem

29

cardinal zimenes

1. restored discipline 2. eliminated immortality among monks and secular clergy

30

john Wycliffe

3. advocated that the popes be stripped of their authority and property 4. urged that Bible be made available in the vernacular languages, reject all practices mentioned in bible, marrige (families of english and bohenima spread ideas)

31

John Hus

1. urged elimination of the worldliness of and corruption of clergy 2. attacked the excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church, tricked into coming to Council of Constance and burned (led to Husstie wars)

32

Council of Constance

passed sacronsancata and frequens (insuffience), issued decrees but pope had to execut them, pope do not cooperate

33

successive popes

worked to defeat conciliar movements (pope pius II), finally reasserted supremacy over catholic, but lost moral prestige and moral leadership and supremacy over temporal governents

34

Renaissance papacy

1. concern: govening chruch as spiritual leader, latter overshadow spiritual function,
2. pursed interests and used bloodsehd (julius II), wanted terriotiryt in papal states (need oyal servants and replyed on neopatism),
3. great patrons of REnaissance art and made rome cultural center (julius II and raphael creating st. peters)

35

Julius II

involved in war and politics, leadeding army (anger from Christianitans), tore down Basilicia of Saint Peter and started creating new one

36

neopotism

putting family in church (situs IV and Alexander V)

37

king Matthias Corvinus

1. broke the power of the wealthy lords 2. created a well-organized bureaucracy 3. patronized the new humanist culture 3. brought Italian scholars and artists to Buda (capital)

38

Ivan III

1. under his reign, a new Russian state, the principality of Moscow was born 2. annexed other Russian principalities 3. took advantage of dissension among mongols to throw off their yoke

39

battle of kosovo

1. ottoman forces defeated Serbs 2. king lazar and sultan murad perished in battle

40

Constaintimpole

1. Sultan Mehment II laid siege to Constantinople 2. Turks made use of massive cannons 3. byzantine emperor died in final battle

41

lollardy

1. product of john Wycliffe

42

sacronsancta

1. stated that a great council of the church received its authority from God,hence every Christian was subject to its authority

43

frequens

provided for the regular holding of general councils to ensure that church reform would contine

44

pope Pius II

1. issued the papal bull Execrabilis 2. condemning appeals to a council over the head of a pope as a heretical

45

Leo X

1. patron of renaissance culture 2. deeply involved participant 3

46

Loreanzo de' Medici

1. acquired fine taste in art, mannersm and social life among florentine elite 2.