summer #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in summer #3 Deck (37):
1

the great schism

Gregory XI and needed new pope, people wanted roman or Italian pope, chose Urban VI, french cardinals said mob forced them to chose him so they chose Clement VII, Europe's loyalties became divided

2

effect of great schism

aggravated financial abuses that had developed within church during Avignon papacy, damaged the faith of believers

3

Gregory XI

returned to Rome, died in 1318

4

urban VI

wanted to reform the papal curia and even to swap college of cardinals with enough new Italian cardinals to eliminate the French majority

5

marsigilo of padua

denied temporal authority was subject to spiritual authority, said church should confine itself solely to spiritual functions

6

conciliarism

belief that only a general council of church could end the schism, but who was to call the council, so council in Pisa made Alexander V pope

7

end of schism

leadership in making new pope went to holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, at council of Constance they elected Colonna pope, became Martin V

8

effect of schism

tendency to stress performance of good works (purgatory became more important), new emphasis on mechanical path to salvation

9

myticism

immediate experience of oneness with God, meister Eckharst

10

Modern Devotion

founded by Gerad Groote, message = to achieve the spiritual communion with God, you must imitate Jesus and lead lives dedicated in serving the needs of their fellow human beings

11

Catherine of Sienna

by eating only the Eucharist was the primary instrument in audience a mystical union with God

12

Williams occam

thought that all universals or general concepts were simply names and that only individual objects perceived by senses were real, reasons can not be used to substantiate spiritual truths

13

vernacular literature

14th century was the rapid growth of vernacular literature, dante, petrach, boccaccio

14

dante

divine comedy (story of soul's profession to salvation, three sections), banished from Florence

15

petrach

Sonnets, inspired by married woman Laura, less concerned to sing lady's praise than to immortalizes his own thoughts, Florentine

16

boccaccio

DeCameron (during plague, 10 people flee from villa to escape plague, tell stories to pass time, present society from secular point of view), fell in love with Fiametta (began to prose romances)

17

chaucer

Canterbury tales (collection of stories by group of pilgrims going to tomb of Saint Thomas), criticize corruptions of church,

18

christine de Pizan

husband died, left with little money, started writing, In the Book of the City of the ladies (said women aren't evil, encourage women to defend themselves

19

giotto

transcended it with a new king of realism, a desire to imitate nature

20

effect of black death on art

survivors no longer optimistic, focused on death and pain, ars moriendi (art of dying)

21

changes in urban lfie in 14th century

greater regulation of urban activities by town government (cleaning), prostitution

22

prostitution

men married early, need them, recession of 14th century increased supply,

23

supervising prostituion

city authorities tax prostitutes, expected to wear specific clothes, allowed to set up brothels in certain places

24

family life and sex roles in late medieval cities

1. marriage (married late) 2. sex roles 3. new opportunities for women (death of works, open new jobs)

25

sex rles

ideas about different natures of men and women became widely accepted, women accepted to remain at home, and seen as incapable of undertaking men's activities

26

medieval children

since there was an increase in specialized roles, they were educated in marketable skills

27

after plague children

communities became concerned about health

28

medicine during medival age

physicians (highly trained in theory but little or no clinical practice),

29

after plague medicaine

four humors, surgeons (knowledge based on experience), mid wives (deliver babies ), barber surgeons (performed menial tasks)

30

four humours

correspond in turn to four elemental qualities of universe, making a human being a microcosm of the cosmos, health = humors in balance, sick = not in balance

31

rise of the surgeons

reason : practical knowledge, equal level with physicians, introduced new emphasis on practical

32

increased intention to public health

public health laws, protecting plague by controlling every aspect of health and sanitation

33

the clock

13th century, perfected in 14th
by product of larger astronomical clock, installing in church or municipal buildings, made it possible to plan one's day and organized one's activities

34

eye glases

13th century, perfected in 14th century
expensive, because paper was expensive, needed to write smaller, then eye glasses made it more readable

35

paper

14th century, cheaper paper made from cotton rags

36

gunpowder

appeared in west in 14th century
brought changes to European warfare, primary used in cannons

37

cannon

early ones would blow up (making them dangerous), important = made extremely valuable in reducing both castles and city halls