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HSCI 180 > Opioids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Opioids Deck (35)
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1

Opium is derived from the poppy plant, specifically:

Papaver somniferum.

2

Although India had a monopoly on opium in the early 1800s, the country responsible for having the most opium smuggled into China was:

Britain

3

Morphine was isolated from opium in:

1806

4

Diacetylmorphine was originally sold under the brand name:

Heroin

5

In 2009, the world leader in opium and heroin production was:

Afghanistan

6

Of the following drugs, which is approximately 100 times more potent than morphine?

fentanyl

7

The administration of naloxone:

blocks the action of opioids.

8

Medically, opioids have saved the most lives because of their use as:

antidiarrheals

9

Opioids act in the brain via receptors for:

endorphins

10

What is Insite?

a supervised injection facility in Vancouver.

11

opium poppy in early Egyptian and Greek cultures

"to prevent he excessive crying of children"

12

opium in the Arabic world

Koran prevents use of alcohol, so opium became the primary social drug
-reached out an made contact with India and China

13

laudanum

opium extract
prepared by Dr Thomas Sydenham

14

Opium Wars

1729: outlawed in China
-smuggling widespread

British East India Company
-legal trade with India
-illicitly in China

Pressure grew and eventual war

15

morphine

1806
opium isolated
10x as potent as opium
Morphus - god of dream

16

codeine

1832
alkaloid of opium discovered
named for poppy head

17

why is morphine so good?

pure chemical
known potency

18

why did morphine spread?

1853: hypodermic syringe allowed delivery directly into blood

war - relief from pain and dysentery
-soldier's disease (dependency)

19

heroin

two acetyl groups added to morphine (diacetlymorphine)
-1898 by Bayer

3x as potent as morphine (lipid solubility)

faster acting than morphine

marketed as non-habit-forming substitute for cocaine
-however, tolerance and dependence

20

supply, distribution, trafficking of Opium and Heroin

poppies imported through South and Southwest Asia

sold openly throughout major cities

major source of illicit opioid use through prescription

21

who are the primary suppliers for Opium to Canada?

South/Southwest Asia

22

changing profile of opioid user

heroin -> prescription opioid

23

prescription opioid

hydromorphone (Vicodin)
oxycodone

24

why has PO use increased?

prescription opiods were more readily accessible than heroin

25

opium to heroin?

opium -> morphine -> heroin

26

opioid antagonist

drugs that block action of opioids
-Naxolone, nalorphine

reverse depressed respiration
precipitate withdrawal syndrome
prvent dependent individuals from experiencing a high

27

opioid mechanism of action

nervous system and endocrine glands activate receptors
-Enkephalines (adrenal, brain)
-Endorphines (pituitary glands, brain)

28

beneficial uses for opioids

pain relief
treat intestinal disorders
cough suppressant (codeine)

29

opioid concerns

-dependence
-tolerance
-withdrawal (physical dependence)

-unpleasant but not life threatening

30

psychological dependence of opioids

-positive reinforcement
-negative reinforcement
-fast acting leads to dependence