Flashcards in Opioids Deck (35)
Opium is derived from the poppy plant, specifically:
Although India had a monopoly on opium in the early 1800s, the country responsible for having the most opium smuggled into China was:
Morphine was isolated from opium in:
Diacetylmorphine was originally sold under the brand name:
In 2009, the world leader in opium and heroin production was:
Of the following drugs, which is approximately 100 times more potent than morphine?
The administration of naloxone:
blocks the action of opioids.
Medically, opioids have saved the most lives because of their use as:
Opioids act in the brain via receptors for:
What is Insite?
a supervised injection facility in Vancouver.
opium poppy in early Egyptian and Greek cultures
"to prevent he excessive crying of children"
opium in the Arabic world
Koran prevents use of alcohol, so opium became the primary social drug
-reached out an made contact with India and China
prepared by Dr Thomas Sydenham
1729: outlawed in China
British East India Company
-legal trade with India
-illicitly in China
Pressure grew and eventual war
10x as potent as opium
Morphus - god of dream
alkaloid of opium discovered
named for poppy head
why is morphine so good?
why did morphine spread?
1853: hypodermic syringe allowed delivery directly into blood
war - relief from pain and dysentery
-soldier's disease (dependency)
two acetyl groups added to morphine (diacetlymorphine)
-1898 by Bayer
3x as potent as morphine (lipid solubility)
faster acting than morphine
marketed as non-habit-forming substitute for cocaine
-however, tolerance and dependence
supply, distribution, trafficking of Opium and Heroin
poppies imported through South and Southwest Asia
sold openly throughout major cities
major source of illicit opioid use through prescription
who are the primary suppliers for Opium to Canada?
changing profile of opioid user
heroin -> prescription opioid
why has PO use increased?
prescription opiods were more readily accessible than heroin
opium to heroin?
opium -> morphine -> heroin
drugs that block action of opioids
reverse depressed respiration
precipitate withdrawal syndrome
prvent dependent individuals from experiencing a high
opioid mechanism of action
nervous system and endocrine glands activate receptors
-Enkephalines (adrenal, brain)
-Endorphines (pituitary glands, brain)
beneficial uses for opioids
treat intestinal disorders
cough suppressant (codeine)
-withdrawal (physical dependence)
-unpleasant but not life threatening