Flashcards in Treating Substance Abuse Deck (70)
What are the estimated costs per year of alcohol and drug abuse in Canada?
Pharmacological interventions are typically used in which two phases of the dependence cycle?
detoxification and maintenance
An example of a pharmacological agent to prevent relapse and that fits the ‘punishment’ maintenance strategy would be:
The most common medication used to treat heroin addiction is:
Many early theories of substance dependence were based on studying people with dependence on which substance?
Which of the following is NOT true of contingency management therapy?
It is focused on rewarding good behaviour and does not include counselling.
Which of the following is an example of harm reduction?
methadone maintenance programs
supervised injection facilities
heroin assisted treatment (HAT)
Motivational enhancement therapy is aimed at:
preparing the user to want to change his behaviour
In the view of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), alcoholics:
are helped through support and total abstinence.
In the Recommendations for a National Treatment Strategy, AA would be an example of a______ support or service.
what does the word "treatment" conjure up?
hospitals, nurses, and physicians
how many Canadians meet the diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and substance dependence?
how much does it cost Nova Scotia a year?
what is the initial and immediate phase of treatment?
what is detoxification?
medication administered to alleviate unpleasant and or dangerous withdrawal symptoms that may appear following abrupt cessation of drug use
what is a longer-term strategy used to help a dependent individual avoid relapse?
what are three general categories of pharmacotherapy for maintenance
-agonist/substitution therapy (block feeling)
-antagonist therapy (block positive feeling)
-aversion therapy (negative)
what is agonist/substitution therapy used for?
to induce cross-tolerance to abused drug
what are some examples of agonist therapy?
methadone - heroin dependence
nicotine - tobacco dependence
why are agonists used?
because they have safer routes of administration and or diminished psychoactive effects compared to the original drug
subtituting a longer-acting pharmacologically equivalent drug allows user to be stabilized on the agonist and then slowly tapered off it, avoid withdrawal
what is antagonist therapy used for?
to prevent user from experiencing reinforced effect of abused drug
what are some examples or antagonist therapy?
naltrexone, blocks opioid effect
what is aversion therapy used for?
to produce aversion reaction following ingestion of abused drug
what are some examples of aversion therapy?
disulfiram for alcohol dependence
what is disulfiram used for?
punishment therapy for alcohol use
-inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, a major enzyme in alcohol metabolism which, in the presence of alcohol can produce symptoms such as headache, vomiting, and breathing difficulties
alcohol detox phase
benzodiazepines typically used:
-to reduce autonomic hyperactivity and prevent seizures
-slow onset of action
-potentiate the inhibitory actions of GABA on the CNS
alcohol maintenance therapy
three approved medication
what does disulfiram do?
-causes unpleasant symptoms if alcohol consumed
-inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, increasing acetaldehyde
why is disulfiram not very effective
because most people don't take medication