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Flashcards in Treating Substance Abuse Deck (70)
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1

What are the estimated costs per year of alcohol and drug abuse in Canada?

$40 billion

2

Pharmacological interventions are typically used in which two phases of the dependence cycle?

detoxification and maintenance

3

An example of a pharmacological agent to prevent relapse and that fits the ‘punishment’ maintenance strategy would be:

disulfiram (Antabuse).

4

The most common medication used to treat heroin addiction is:

methadone.

5

Many early theories of substance dependence were based on studying people with dependence on which substance?

alcohol

6

Which of the following is NOT true of contingency management therapy?

It is focused on rewarding good behaviour and does not include counselling.

7

Which of the following is an example of harm reduction?

syringe exchanges
methadone maintenance programs
supervised injection facilities
heroin assisted treatment (HAT)

8

Motivational enhancement therapy is aimed at:

preparing the user to want to change his behaviour

9

In the view of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), alcoholics:

are helped through support and total abstinence.

10

In the Recommendations for a National Treatment Strategy, AA would be an example of a______ support or service.

Tier 1

11

what does the word "treatment" conjure up?

hospitals, nurses, and physicians

12

how many Canadians meet the diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and substance dependence?

2 million

13

how much does it cost Nova Scotia a year?

1.244 billion

14

what is the initial and immediate phase of treatment?

detoxification

15

what is detoxification?

medication administered to alleviate unpleasant and or dangerous withdrawal symptoms that may appear following abrupt cessation of drug use

16

what is a longer-term strategy used to help a dependent individual avoid relapse?

maintenance

17

what are three general categories of pharmacotherapy for maintenance

-agonist/substitution therapy (block feeling)
-antagonist therapy (block positive feeling)
-aversion therapy (negative)

18

what is agonist/substitution therapy used for?

to induce cross-tolerance to abused drug

19

what are some examples of agonist therapy?

methadone - heroin dependence
nicotine - tobacco dependence

20

why are agonists used?

because they have safer routes of administration and or diminished psychoactive effects compared to the original drug
subtituting a longer-acting pharmacologically equivalent drug allows user to be stabilized on the agonist and then slowly tapered off it, avoid withdrawal

21

what is antagonist therapy used for?

to prevent user from experiencing reinforced effect of abused drug

22

what are some examples or antagonist therapy?

naltrexone, blocks opioid effect

23

what is aversion therapy used for?

to produce aversion reaction following ingestion of abused drug

24

what are some examples of aversion therapy?

disulfiram for alcohol dependence

25

what is disulfiram used for?

punishment therapy for alcohol use
-inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, a major enzyme in alcohol metabolism which, in the presence of alcohol can produce symptoms such as headache, vomiting, and breathing difficulties

26

alcohol detox phase

benzodiazepines typically used:
-to reduce autonomic hyperactivity and prevent seizures
-slow onset of action
-potentiate the inhibitory actions of GABA on the CNS

27

alcohol maintenance therapy

three approved medication
-disulfiram (Antabuse)
-Naltrexone
-acamprosate

28

what does disulfiram do?

for alcohol
-causes unpleasant symptoms if alcohol consumed
-inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, increasing acetaldehyde

29

why is disulfiram not very effective

because most people don't take medication

30

what does naltrexone do?

reduces alcohol craving (but not large impact on overall treatment)
may block opioid receptors and reinforcing effects of alcohol