Flashcards in NHP Deck (78)
what helped the growth of NHP?
-increased interest in food that can be used in prevention and treatment of illnesses
-belief that NHPs are better than conventional drugs
what are the two things drugs have to demonstrate?
what do NHPs have to demonstrate?
Natural Health Products Directorate regulations define NHPs as products for use in:
-diagnosing, treating, mitigating, or preventing a disease, disorder, etc
-restoring or correcting organic functions in humans
-modifying functions in a manner that maintains or prpmotes health
Do NHPs need a prescription?
Do NHPs require evidence to support claims of safety and efficacy?
-must include clinical trial data
-references to published studies and pharmacopoeias
NHP as traditional use requirement?
50 yr of consecutive years of use within a cultural belief system (represents 2 generations - reproductive side effects can be determined)
-references that support recommended condition of use and dose info
-method of preparation
St John's Wort
Hypericum perforatum ("devils scourge")
-supposed prevention of possession by demon
anxiety (limited evidence) & antidepressant
-as effective as standard antidepressant with less side effects
-superior to placebo
active form of methionine
acts as a methyl donor
-as effective as tricyclic antidepressants
long history in China
improve memory and cognitive function
-not clear on effectiveness
-may help Alzheimers
reduces blood clotting (enhance circulation )
-combining with Aspirin = dangerous
In Canada, as of 2004, all natural products with associated claims of health benefits are subject to regulations from the:
A recent survey showed that ____of Canadians regularly use NHPs.
Evidence suggests that Ginko Biloba may act as a:
What is phenyl-propanolamine (PPA)?
an active ingredient in some weight-loss products that has been banned.
Diphenhydramine, which is found in most sleep aids, is really a(n):
Acetylsalicylic acid was originally sold under the brand name:
Aspirin should not be given to children because of increased risk for:
Dextromethorphan is the most common active ingredient in what OTC medicines?
cough and cold
is an example of an NSAID.
reduce all types of sensation or by blocking consciousness completely
compounds that reduce pain selectively
-OTC: aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen
types of pain
visceral pain (opioids)
somatic pains (salicylates)
-muscle or bone
-sprains, headaches, arthritis
1838 synthesized and isolated from willow bark
used for arthritis
salicylic acid caused great gastric discomfort so Hoffmann synthesized acetylsalicylic acid in 1898
-product patented and released in 1899 under the name Aspirin
heroin was also synthesized here
more potent than salicylic acid because Aspirin irritates stomach less and thus absorbed more rapidly
-antipyretic: reduces fever
-antiinflammatory: reduces swelling, inflammation, soreness
aspirin adverse effects-
-reduce blood clotting
-induce gastrointestinal bleeding
-Reyes syndrome (children with chicken pox): vomiting, disoriented, lethargic, mortality rate 25%
aspirin mechanism of action
-central and peripheral analgesic effect
-aspirin blocks synthesis of prostaglandins (mediate pain) by inhibiting two forms of cyclooxygenase enzyme COX-1,2
-antipyretic: anterior hypothalamus -> sweating and dilation of peripheral blood vessels
-analgesic & antipyretic
-kidney lesions and dysfunction :0
-rapidly convert to acetaminophen