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Flashcards in NHP Deck (78)
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1

what helped the growth of NHP?

-increased interest in food that can be used in prevention and treatment of illnesses
-belief that NHPs are better than conventional drugs
-aggressive marketing

2

what are the two things drugs have to demonstrate?

-safety
-effectiveness

3

what do NHPs have to demonstrate?

-purity
-safety

4

Natural Health Products Directorate regulations define NHPs as products for use in:

-diagnosing, treating, mitigating, or preventing a disease, disorder, etc
-restoring or correcting organic functions in humans
-modifying functions in a manner that maintains or prpmotes health

5

Do NHPs need a prescription?

no

6

Do NHPs require evidence to support claims of safety and efficacy?

-must include clinical trial data
-references to published studies and pharmacopoeias

7

NHP as traditional use requirement?

50 yr of consecutive years of use within a cultural belief system (represents 2 generations - reproductive side effects can be determined)

include:
-references that support recommended condition of use and dose info
-method of preparation

8

St John's Wort

Hypericum perforatum ("devils scourge")
-supposed prevention of possession by demon

anxiety (limited evidence) & antidepressant
-as effective as standard antidepressant with less side effects
-superior to placebo

9

SAMe

active form of methionine
acts as a methyl donor
antidepressant
-as effective as tricyclic antidepressants

10

Ginkgo Biloba

long history in China

improve memory and cognitive function
-not clear on effectiveness
-may help Alzheimers

reduces blood clotting (enhance circulation )
-combining with Aspirin = dangerous

11

In Canada, as of 2004, all natural products with associated claims of health benefits are subject to regulations from the:

NHPD

12

A recent survey showed that ____of Canadians regularly use NHPs.

71%

13

Evidence suggests that Ginko Biloba may act as a:

blood thinner

14

What is phenyl-propanolamine (PPA)?

an active ingredient in some weight-loss products that has been banned.

15

Diphenhydramine, which is found in most sleep aids, is really a(n):

antihistamine

16

Acetylsalicylic acid was originally sold under the brand name:

Aspirin

17

Aspirin should not be given to children because of increased risk for:

Reye's syndrome.

18

Dextromethorphan is the most common active ingredient in what OTC medicines?

cough and cold

19

Ibuprofen:

is an example of an NSAID.

20

anesthetics

"without sensibility"
reduce all types of sensation or by blocking consciousness completely

21

analgesics

"without pain"
compounds that reduce pain selectively
two groups:
-opioids
-OTC: aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen

22

types of pain

visceral pain (opioids)
-intestinal cramps
-nonskelatal portions

somatic pains (salicylates)
-muscle or bone
-sprains, headaches, arthritis

23

salicylic acid

1838 synthesized and isolated from willow bark
used for arthritis

24

Bayer Labs

salicylic acid caused great gastric discomfort so Hoffmann synthesized acetylsalicylic acid in 1898
-product patented and released in 1899 under the name Aspirin

heroin was also synthesized here

25

aspirin
-potency?

more potent than salicylic acid because Aspirin irritates stomach less and thus absorbed more rapidly

26

aspirin effects

-analgesic
-antipyretic: reduces fever
-antiinflammatory: reduces swelling, inflammation, soreness

27

aspirin adverse effects-

-reduce blood clotting
-induce gastrointestinal bleeding
-Reyes syndrome (children with chicken pox): vomiting, disoriented, lethargic, mortality rate 25%

28

aspirin mechanism of action

-central and peripheral analgesic effect
-aspirin blocks synthesis of prostaglandins (mediate pain) by inhibiting two forms of cyclooxygenase enzyme COX-1,2

-antipyretic: anterior hypothalamus -> sweating and dilation of peripheral blood vessels

29

phenacetin

-analgesic & antipyretic
-kidney lesions and dysfunction :0
-rapidly convert to acetaminophen

30

acetaminophen

-less gastric bleeding but also less useful as anti-inflammatory
-Tylenol
-overuse => liver disorders