Oxygen and Respiratory Failure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Oxygen and Respiratory Failure Deck (25):
1

How can oxygen travel in the blood?

Bound to haemoglobin or dissolved in the plasma

2

The amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to what?

The pressure of the gas

3

What is SaO2?

Oxygen saturation of arterial blood

4

What is SpO2?

Oxygen saturation as measured by a pulse oximeter

5

What is PaO2?

The amount of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood plasma

6

The amount of oxygen dissolved in the blood is proportional to what?

The partial pressure of oxygen

7

What does not increase in proportion to the partial pressure of oxygen?

The amount of oxygen bound to haemoglobin

8

What is FiO2?

Fraction of inspired oxygen- the amount of oxygen a patient is taking in through different oxygen masks

9

What happens when patients with chronic respiratory failure are given high concentrations of oxygen?

They will develop hypercapnia and become acidotic quickly

10

What is type 1 respiratory failure?

Low oxygen, normal CO2

11

What is type 2 respiratory failure?

Low oxygen, high CO2

12

What signifies chronic respiratory failure?

Differences in bicarbonate value as this takes a few days to show

13

Why does CO2 retention occur?

Because of V/Q mismatching- perfusion will still be good but ventilation will be poor

14

What physiological term does CO2 retention work around?

The Haldane effect

15

What does chronic hypercapnia cause?

Desensitisation of CO2 chemoreceptors and oxygen chemoreceptors become more important

16

What is the desensitisation of CO2 chemoreceptors known as?

Hypoxic drive

17

What can hypoxaemia lead to?

Altered mental state, cyanosis, dyspnoea, tachypnoea, arrhythmias

18

What is perfusion without ventilation known as?

Shunting

19

What is ventilation without perfusion known as?

Dead space

20

Which is more common, shunting or dead space?

Shunting

21

Which diseases is dead space usually found in?

Pulmonary embolism, vasculitis and hypertension

22

How much oxygen should be given in medical emergencies?

As much as possible

23

What is the target SaO2 for patients with COPD/obesity/scoliosis/cystic fibrosis?

88-92%

24

What should target saturations normally be?

94-98%

25

What delivery method of oxygen should be used in emergencies?

Reservoir mask