Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Deck (17):
1

What is stridor?

A predominantly inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction

2

What are causes of stridor in children?

Many severe infections, foreign body, anaphylaxis, burns

3

What are causes of stridor in adults?

Foreign bodies, neoplasms, anaphylaxis, goitre, trauma

4

What is tracheomalacia?

Loss of cartilage rings

5

What tests are done for stridor?

Laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, flow volume loop, CXR

6

When should you be cautious using a laryngoscopy?

In acute epiglottitis

7

What further imaging can be used for stridor?

CT or thyroid scan

8

How is anaphylaxis treated?

IM adrenaline, IV antihistamine and corticosteroid, high flow O2, nebulised bronchodilators, intubation if necessary

9

What causes snoring?

Relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles

10

What is obstructive sleep apnoea?

Intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep

11

What are some effects if sleep apnoea happens frequently?

Waking up many times through the night and hypoxia

12

What hormonal causes increase risk of sleep apnoea?

Acromegaly or hypothyroidism

13

What drugs increase risk of sleep apnoea?

Benzodiazepines, opiates or alcohol

14

What are some straight off effects of sleep apnoea?

Daytime tiredness and inability to function, personality change, cognitive impairment and dangerous driving

15

Medically what can sleep apnoea cause?

Risk for hypertension, raised CRP, activated sympathetics, impaired endothelial function, impaired glucose tolerance

16

How can sleep apnoea be diagnosed?

EDS (sleepiness scale), overnight sleep study

17

How do you treat sleep apnoea?

Remove cause, CPAP, mandibular advancement device, surgery