Flashcards in Stridor and Sleep Apnoea Deck (17):
What is stridor?
A predominantly inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction
What are causes of stridor in children?
Many severe infections, foreign body, anaphylaxis, burns
What are causes of stridor in adults?
Foreign bodies, neoplasms, anaphylaxis, goitre, trauma
What is tracheomalacia?
Loss of cartilage rings
What tests are done for stridor?
Laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, flow volume loop, CXR
When should you be cautious using a laryngoscopy?
In acute epiglottitis
What further imaging can be used for stridor?
CT or thyroid scan
How is anaphylaxis treated?
IM adrenaline, IV antihistamine and corticosteroid, high flow O2, nebulised bronchodilators, intubation if necessary
What causes snoring?
Relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles
What is obstructive sleep apnoea?
Intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep
What are some effects if sleep apnoea happens frequently?
Waking up many times through the night and hypoxia
What hormonal causes increase risk of sleep apnoea?
Acromegaly or hypothyroidism
What drugs increase risk of sleep apnoea?
Benzodiazepines, opiates or alcohol
What are some straight off effects of sleep apnoea?
Daytime tiredness and inability to function, personality change, cognitive impairment and dangerous driving
Medically what can sleep apnoea cause?
Risk for hypertension, raised CRP, activated sympathetics, impaired endothelial function, impaired glucose tolerance
How can sleep apnoea be diagnosed?
EDS (sleepiness scale), overnight sleep study