Respiratory Disease in Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory Disease in Childhood Deck (26):
1

What is the process of respiratory distress syndrome?

Relative surfactant deficiency, air sacs collapse, V/Q mismatch, hypoxia

2

What is used to treat surfactant deficiency in respiratory distress syndrome?

Steroids

3

What common lung condition can neonatal respiratory distress syndrome lead to?

Pneumothorax

4

What increases incidence of pneumothorax?

Intermittent positive pulmonary ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure or ventilation

5

Because preterm babies are now more likely to survive, what can this lead to?

Chronic lung disease, diaphragmatic hernia, transient tachypnoea of the newborn

6

What is corrected gestation?

How old the baby is - how preterm the baby was

7

What signifies chronic lung disease in babies?

Oxygen requirement beyond 36 weeks corrected gestation and evidence of pulmonary parenchymal disease on CXR

8

What do babies with a chronic lung disease often go on to have?

Wheeze (not necessarily asthma)

9

What is a diaphragmatic hernia associated with?

Pulmonary hypoplasia

10

How do you treat a diaphragmatic hernia?

Respiratory support and surgery (do not bag)

11

What is transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

Lung fluid present which can be caused by infection

12

What are risk factors for transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

Ill mother, mother on antibiotics, bacteria going around

13

What are chronic lung problems in children?

CF, Kartenager's (immobile cilia) syndrome, asthma

14

When are babies screened for CF and what are you looking for?

6 weeks- raised immune reactive trypsin level

15

CF babies will have what genetic change?

Homozygous for deltaF508 deletion

16

What mode of inheritance is CF and how many people are carriers?

Autosomal recessive- 1 in 25 carriers

17

What mode of inheritance is Kartenager's syndrome?

Autosomal recessive

18

What causes the problem in Kartenager's syndrome?

Some or all of the bodies organs are in the wrong place 'situs inversus' which causes the cilia hairs to beat the wrong way

19

What is bronchiolitis?

A viral infection in children < 18 months old and in a family of smokers

20

What are symptoms of bronchiolitis?

Tachypnoea, poor feeding, irritating cough, apnoea in small babies

21

How do you treat bronchiolitis?

Supportive

22

What type of pneumonia can neonates get?

Group B strep, E.coli, Klebsiella, staph.aureus

23

What type of pneumonia can infants get?

Strep pneumoniae or chlamydia

24

What is croup?

Viral laryngotracheobronchitis

25

What are symptoms of croup?

Stridor, barking cough

26

What treatment is used for croup?

Steroids to reduce inflammation