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Flashcards in Radiology Deck (41):
1

What do the lung hila consist of?

Major bronchi and pulmonary veins/arteries

2

Are the hila symmetrical?

No

3

Are hilar lymph nodes normally visible?

No, only when abnormal

4

Which lung hila is higher?

Left

5

Which hemidiaphragm is higher?

Right

6

What is under the right hemidiaphragm?

Liver

7

What is under the left hemidiaphragm in a bean shape?

Stomach

8

What does the aortic knuckle depict?

Aortic arch

9

What part of the aorta can be seen following the aortic arch?

Descending (thoracic) aorta

10

What heart chamber forms the right heart border?

Right atrium

11

What heart chamber forms the left heart border?

Left ventricle

12

What can be seen branching off the right tracheal wall?

Azygous vein

13

What can cause a tracheal shift towards the affected lung?

Pneumothorax (not tension) or pneumonectomy

14

What can cause a tracheal shift away from the affected lung?

Tension pneumothorax or large pleural effusion

15

What does bilateral hilar enlargement suggest?

Sarcoidosis

16

What are some differentials of bilateral hilar enlargement?

Lymphoma, metastatic disease, infection

17

What is asymmetrical hilar enlargement (especially with pulmonary nodules) most likely to be?

Malignant metastases

18

What is something which can be seen on a CXR which suggests previous cancer?

Mastectomy

19

What part on a CXR can also be moved, similar to the trachea?

Lung hila

20

What are 4 causes of consolidation?

Pneumonia (pus)
Oedema (fluid)
Haemorrhage (blood)
Cancer (cells)

21

What are 3 causes of complete white out?

Consolidation, pneumonectomy or massive pleural effusion

22

What is classed as a large pneumothorax?

Lung border more than 2cm away from the inner chest wall

23

What does the loss of the right heart border suggest?

Right middle lobe consolidation

24

When are both costophrenic angles blunt and hemidiaphragms flattened?

Lung hyperexpansion

25

What are 2 causes of lung hyperexpansion?

COPD and alpha1 anti-trypsin deficiency

26

What does the loss of ONLY the left heart border suggest?

Left upper lobe lingular consolidation

27

What does the loss of BOTH the left heart border and obscured left hemi-diaphragm suggest?

Left lower lobe consolidation

28

What is the first step of viewing a CXR?

Check patient details and date/time of CXR

29

What is the second step of viewing a CXR?

Note the image projection

30

If the image projection isn't on the X-ray, what is it most likely to be/

Standard PA view

31

What is step 3 of viewing a CXR?

Comment on image quality and presence of medical artefacts

32

What are the 3 things considered when assessing image quality?

Rotation, inspiration, penetration

33

How do you tell a CXR is not rotated?

The spine is in the midpoint between the medial ends of two clavicles

34

How do you tell a CXR is on inspiration?

Ribs 5-7 anteriorly intersect hemi-diaphragm in the mid-clavicular line

35

How do you tell a CXR is well penetrated?

The spine is visible behind the heart

36

What words can be used to describe abnormalities?

Opacities, shadows or densities

37

What should you mention when describing opacities?

Tissue involved (lung), size, side, number, distribution, position, shape

38

What should you always check for when looking at a CXR?

Pneumothorax- always state your finding

39

What are some features of a left lower collapse?

- Displaced left oblique fissure
- Obscured medial part of left hemi-diaphragm
- Left hemi-diaphragm higher than right
- Triangular shape behind heart

40

What are some features of a right upper collapse?

- Right horizontal fissure displaced upwards
- Whiteness at upper zone
- Sail sign

41

What are some features of a left upper collapse?

- Obscured left heart border
- Whole lung looks white
- Veil sign