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Study notes - Respiratory > *Paeds > Flashcards

Flashcards in *Paeds Deck (22):
1

What is respiratory distress?

Severe difficulty in acieving adequate oxygenation in spite of significant efforts to breath

2

What is the likeliest reason for respiratory distress in a premature baby?

Respiratory distress syndrome

3

How can respiratory distress syndrome be prevented in premature babies?

They can be given surfactant prophylactically into their lungs

4

What is surfactant made of?

Phosopholipid and apoproteins

5

When is surfactant produced in pregnancy?

30-32 weeks

6

What is atelectasis?

Partial collapse of the lung

7

What is chronic lung disease?

A condition in babies where their lungs have been damage meaning they require oxygen beyond 36 weeks corrected gestation plus evidence of pulmonary parenchymal disease on CXR (generally follows RDS/ high oxygen flow) - usually weined off oxygen by 1 year (due to lungs growing and repairing)

8

How is chronic lung disease prevented?

Less forceful ventilation used

9

What is a problem associated with diaphragmatic hernias?

Pulmonary hypoplasia - the gut moves into the chest cavity and prevents the lungs from developing properly

10

Treatment of diaphragmatic hernia?

Avoid bagging baby as puts air into stomach which presses on lung more
Resp. support
Surgery

11

what causes a newborn infant to present with raised immune-reactive trypsin levels on neonatal screening who is found to be homozygous for the delta F508 deletion?

CF

12

What is immotile cilia syndrome?

Immotile cilia syndrome (ICS) is an autosomal recessive disease with extensive genetic heterogeneity characterized by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance.

13

What is Kartagner triad?

situs inversus
chronic sinusitis and/or nasal polyposis
bronchiectasis
(type of immotile cilia syndrome)

14

What is the next step if a patient has a high probability of having asthma?

Trial treatment

15

What effect does smoking have on a child?

Low birthweight
Loss of pregnancy
Perinatal mortality increased
Glue ear
Carcinogenic
Increased likelihood of asthma attack

16

What pathogen causes RSV?

Bronchioloitis

17

What type of babies have a higher risk of bronchiolitis? (3)

Younger babies
Ex premature babies
Family of smokers

18

What causes pneumonia in neonates? (4)

Group B strep.
E. coli
Klebsiella
Staph aureus

19

What causes pneumonia in infants? (2)

Strep. pneumoniae
Chlamydia

20

What causes pneumonia in school aged children? (6)

Strep pneunmoniae
Staph aureus
Group A Strep
Bordatella
Mycoplasma
Legionella

21

What is Laryngomalacia?

the most common cause of stridor in infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction

22

Treatment of viral laryngotracheobronchitis?

Croup = oral steroids to reduce inflammation