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NUR 152 Final Exam > Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pain Deck (15)
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1

Pain

Pain is whatever the person with the pain says it is and that it exists whenever the person says it does

2

2 types of nocioceptive pain

visceral pain
somatic pain

3

Visceral pain

arises from organs of the body

4

Somatic pain

occurs with injury to skin, muscles, bones, joints

5

Referred pain

occurs in one are but hurts in another area
MI and jaw/arm pain

6

Radiating pain

pain that extends to another area of the body
GERD pain from stomach to esophagus

7

SOCRATES

S- Site
O- Onset
C- Characteristics
R- Radiation
A- Associations
T- Time course
E- Exacerbating/Relieving factors
S- Severity

8

S/SX of pain

increased HR, RR, BP
facial grimacing
guarding

9

transduction

converts energy from stimuli into electrical charge
begins in periphery, sends message across nociceptor, initiates action potential

10

transmission

release of neurotransmitters
A and C
spinal cord to brain

11

perception

point at which the person is aware of the pain

12

modulation

inhibition of pain impulse by releasing inhibitory neurotransmitters (endorphins)

13

alternative/complementary pain tx

acupuncture
acupressure
herbal
relaxation
guided imagery
distraction
music
yoga
reiki
hypnosis

14

WHO 3 step analgesic ladder

recommended for cancer pain
1st: nonopioid analgesic and/or adjuvants
2nd: weak opioids alone or in combo with nonopioid meds/adjuvants
3rd: Strong opioids

15

adjuvant

drugs originally produced to treat conditions other than pain but also have analgesic properties