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NUR 152 Final Exam > Fluid and Electrolyte > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolyte Deck (32)
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1

2 fluid compartments of body

intracellular
extracellular

2

3 parts of extracellular fluids

interstitial
intravascular
transcellular

3

diffusion

movement of molecules from area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
no energy required

4

facilitated diffusion

requires a protein carrier
no energy required
ex: glucose transportation

5

active transport

molecules move against the concentration gradient
uses energy
ex: sodium-potassium pump

6

osmosis

movement of water down the concentration gradient
from area of lower concentration to area of higher concentration
no energy

7

normal Na+ level

135-145 mEq/L

8

normal K+ level

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

9

normal Ca+ level

8.5-10.2 mEq/L

10

normal Mg+ level

1.3--2.1 mEq/L

11

normal PO4- level

1.7--2.6 mEq/L

12

normal Cl- level

95--105 mEq/L

13

edema

accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces

14

S/SX of FVD

hypotension
weak, thready pulse
tachycardia

15

S/SX of low protein

weight gain, pulmonary congestion, edema, hypotension, increased HR, weak pulse

16

causes of FVD

diarrhea, hemorrhage, inadequate intake, shift from plasma into interstitial space, diuretics, third spacing, insensible loss

17

causes of FVE

excessive IV fluids, HF, Renal failure, SIADH, Cushing,

18

S/SX of FVD

restless, lethargic, thirst, dry mucous membranes, decreased skin turgor, decreased cap refill, increased HR and RR, postural hypotension, seizure, weight loss

19

S/SX of FVE

bounding pulse, increased BP, HA, peripheral edema, dyspnea, crackles, weight gain, muscle spasms

20

interventions for fluid imbalances

monitor I/O, cardio, respiratory, neuro, daily weight, skin turgor

21

Causes of hypernatremia

IV fluids
hypertonic tube feedings
near-drowning in saltwater
excessive Na+ intake
diabetes insipidus
Cushing

22

Causes of hyponatremia

GI losses
diuretics
burns
wound drainage
fasting diet
SIADH
HF

23

S/SX of hypernatremia

restless, agitated
thirst
decreased BP, increased pulse
flushed
peripheral edema

24

S/SX of hyponatremia

irritability, confused, dizzy
tremors, increased pulse, cold, clammy
N/V, diarrhea, cramps

25

Causes of hyperkalemia

excessive intake
K+ containing/sparing drugs
tumor lysis
crush syndrome
renal disease
ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs

26

Causes of hypokalemia

D- diuretics, diarrhea, drugs
I- inadequate intake
T- too much water intake
C- Cushing's syndrome
H- heavy fluid loss (vomit, sweat, wound drainage, NG suction)

corticosteroids, diuretics, laxatives, chemotherapy

27

S/SX of hypokalemia

"7 Ls"
Lethargic
low, shallow RR
lethal cardiac changes
loss of urine
leg cramps
limp muscles
low BP/HR
confusion
constipation
hypoactive bowel
abdominal distention
decreased DTR

28

S/SX of hyperkalemia

"MURDER"
M- muscle weakness
U- urine production low/absent
R- respiratory failure
D- decreased cardiac contractability (decreased HR)
E- early signs of muscle twitch (cramps)
R- rhythm changes
S- seizures

29

causes of hypercalcemia

"HIGH CAL"
H-hyperparathyroidism
I- increased intake of Ca
G- glucocorticoids
H- hyperthyroidism
C- calcium excretion decreased (thiazides, renal failure, bone cancer)
L- lithium usage

30

S/SX of hypercalcemia

"WEAK"
W-weak muscles
E- EKG changes (short QT, long ST)
A- absent reflexes, absent minded
K- kidney stones

constipation, N/V, anorexia, lethargic, stupor, coma