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Diagnostic Imaging II > Part 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Part 5 Deck (51):
1

fractures of the distal humerus

transcondylar
lateral condyle
medial condyle
T shaped intercondylar
Y shaped intercondylar
modified T or Y shaped

2

what is the most common elbow fracture in children?

supracondylar

3

what is the most common elbow fracture in adults?

radial head or neck

4

what are some things to look out for when evaulating the elbow?

positive fat pad sign
radio-capitellar line
anterior humeral line
hockey stick appearance

5

what are the routine radiographs for the elbow?

AP
lateral

6

positive fat pad sign

anterior fat pad "sail sign"
see posterior fat pad

7

what line is helpful in determining supracondylar fractures?

anterior humeral line

8

what line is helpful in determining radial subluxations?

radiocapitellar line

9

where does the anterior humeral line usually fall?

middle 1/3 of the capitellum

10

ossification of capitellum

3-6 months

11

ossification of radial head

4-5 years

12

ossification of internal/medial epicondyle

5-7 years

13

ossification of trochlea

8-9 years

14

ossification of olecranon

8-10 years

15

ossification of external/lateral epicondyle

11-12 years

16

what is the helpful mnemonic for the ossification centers of the elbow?

CRITOE

17

is it a problem if one of the ossification centers occifies out of order?

yes, needs further examination

18

nursemaid's elbow results from?

sudden jerk or pull on the hand resulting in entrapment of the annular ligament of the radial head

19

how does the child hold their arm if they have nursemaid's elbow?

pronation

20

reduction of nursemaid's elbow is by?

supinating the forearm

21

how common is dislocating the elbow?

adults: 3rd most common
children: most common

22

what is the most common classification of elbow dislocation?

posterior/posterolateral

23

what is the most common injury to the forearm?

both bones fractured

24

galeezzi's fracture

oblique spiral like fracture of the distal radius
slight dislocation of the distal radial ulnar articulation

25

both bones fracture

transverse fractures of both bones of the distal forearm with posterior and lateral displacment and over riding deformity

26

nightstick fracture

usually due to direct trauma to the forearm, which is raised to protect the head during an assault with a club or hard object
minimally displaced oblique fracture of the distal ulnar shaft

27

monteggia fracture

oblique fracture to the shaft of the ulna
radial head dislocated anteriorly

28

greenstick fracture

partial disruption of the cortex with angular change at the fracture site
tendancy for re-angulation following initial reduction

29

what bones does a greenstick fracture involve?

radius, ulna (maybe even both)

30

torus fracture

most common fracture of a child
FOOSH injury
outward bulging of the cortex often at the posterior radial surface

31

which view is a torus fracture seen best?

lateral

32

routine views of the wrist

PA
oblique
lateral

33

colles' fracture

fracture of the radius about 1 1/2 inches above the carpals with posterior displacement of the distal fragment

34

colles' fracture usually occurs in what age group?

elderly

35

what is the mechanism of injury for colles'?

FOOSH

36

colles' fractures are often associated with?

ulnar styloid fractures

37

what is the deformity associated with colles' fracture?

dinner fork deformity

38

what are some radiographic indicators of colles' fracture?

pronator quadratus fascial line should be less than 3mm of the radius to be normal

39

smith's fracture

fracture of the radius 1 1/2 inches from the carpals withe anterior angulation of the distal fragment

40

smith's fracture results from?

fall on back of the hand

41

what is a smith's fracture also known as?

reverse colles' fracture

42

barton's fracture

fracture of the posterior rim of the radius with accompanying carpal dislocation

43

what causes a barton's fracture?

FOOSH

44

hutchinson's/chauffeur's fracture

radial styloid process
may be avulsion or direct trauma

45

what view is hutchinson's fracture best seen?

P-A view

46

what is the most common carpal injury?

scaphoid

47

who most commonly gets carpal injuries?

15-40 year olds

48

what part of the scaphoid is most commonly involved?

waist

49

what is the most common site for an occult (cannot see on radiograph) fracture?

scaphoid

50

which view can you most commonly see scaphoid fracturess?

ulnar flexion

51

what are the complications for scaphoid fractures?

often occult
delayed union
nonunion
avascular necrosis