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Flashcards in Parts of the Forebrain Deck (51):
1

The thalamus is a structure within the forebrain that serves as an important relay station for incoming sensory information, including all senses except for ____.

smell

2

After receiving incoming sensory impulses, the thalamus sorts and transmit them to the appropriate areas of the ______.

cerebral cortex

3

The 4 F's of the hypothalamus are:

feeding, fighting, flighting, (sexual) functioning

4

The hypothalamus is subdivided into the _____, ______, and ______ hypothalamus.

lateral, ventromedial, anterior

5

The hypothalamus serves homeostatic functions and is a key player in emotional experiences during ______, ______ behavior, and ______ behavior.

high arousal states
aggressive
sexual

6

Receptors in the hypothalamus regulate _____, _____, and ______.

metabolism, temperature, water balance

7

The hypothalamus is the primary regulator of the ______ system. It is also important in the so-called _____ behaviors: ____, ______, and ______.

autonomic
drive: hunger/thirst/sexual

8

When the lateral hypothalamus is destroyed, one _____

lacks hunger

9

When the ventromedial hypothalamus is destroyed, one is

very much hungry

10

When the anterior hypothalamus is destroyed, one is

asexual

11

In addition to the thalamus and hypothalamus, the diencephalon divides to form the posterior pit, ___ gland, and ______ ______ to ____ _____ ______.

pineal
connecting pathways, other brain regions

12

Posterior pit secretes _____ and _____

ADH/vasopressin and oxytocin

13

Most notably, the pineal gland secretes _____, which regulates _____ _____. In fact, it receives direct signals from the ____ for coordination with ______.

melatonin
circadian rhythms
retina, sunlight

14

The basal ganglia coordinate ______ as they receive information from the cortex and relay this information (via the ________ ______ system) to the brain and the spinal cord.

muscle movement
extrapyramidal motor system

15

The extrapyramidal motor system gathers information about _______

body position

16

Essentially, the basal ganglia help make our movements _____ and our ______ ______.

smooth
posture, steady

17

_______ is one chronic illness associated with destruction of portions of the ________.

Parkinson's disease
basal ganglia

18

The limbic system comprises a group of interconnected structures looping around the central portion of the brain and is primarily associated with ____ and ______.

emotion and memory

19

The ____ _____ contain one of the primary pleasure centers in the brain.

septal nuclei

20

The _____ is a structure that plays an important role in defensive and aggressive behaviors, including _____ and ______.

amygdala
fear and rage

21

The hippocampus helps ______ information to form __-__ memories. It can also redistribute _____ memories to the _______.

consolidate
long-term
remote, cerebral cortex

22

The _______ is a long projection through which the hippocampus communicates with other portions of the limbic system

fornix

23

Damage to the hippocampus would result in _________ amnesia.

anterograde

24

________ amnesia is not being able to establish new long-term memories

anterograde

25

Memory loss of events that transpired before brain injury is called _______ amnesia.

retrograde

26

The lobes of the brain:

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

27

The primary components of the limbic system are the ________, _____ ______, and _________.

Limbic system HAS
hippocampus, amygdala, septal nuclei

28

The cerebral cortex has many bumps called ______

gyri

29

The cerebral cortex has many folds called ______

sulci

30

The frontal lobe is comprised of two basic regions: the ______ lobes and the ____ ______.

prefrontal lobes
motor cortex

31

The managing of executive function, by supervising and directing the operations of other brain regions, is carried out by the __________ _________. It reminds you that there is something to remember.

prefrontal cortex

32

To regulate attention and alertness, the _______ _____ communicates with the ___________ in the brainstem, saying either to wake up or relax.

prefrontal cortex
reticular formation

33

The prefrontal cortex is an example of an association area. Projection areas perform simpler _____ and _____ tasks. The visual cortex is an example.

perceptual and motor

34

Damage to prefrontal cortex = _______ or _______

impulsive or depressed

35

The primary motor cortex is in the _______ gyrus.

precentral

36

The _____ sulcus divides the frontal and parietal lobes. Just in front is the ____ _____ cortex.

central
primary motor

37

The motor homunculus is a schematic of the ______

primary motor cortex

38

Broca's area is always in the ______ hemisphere (usually ____).

dominant, left

39

The somatosensroy cortex, part of the ______ lobe, is located on the ______ gyrus.

parietal
postcentral

40

The somatosensory cortex, part of the _____ lobe, is related to the ____ _____ cortex of the ______ lobe. The two are often called the _________ _______.

parietal
primary motor, frontal
sensorimotor

41

The visual cortex is also called the ____ cortex.

striate

42

The __ cortex and ______ area are located in the temporal lobe.

auditory, Wernicke's

43

Language reception and comprehension is assoc with _____

language reception and comprehension

44

The hippocampus is located deep inside the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe also functions in _____ processing and ____.

memory, emotion

45

Damage to the amygdala might result in ____ and _____ sates.

docility, hypersexual

46

Defensive and agressive behaviors are assoc with ____

the amygdala

47

Same side of brain controlling same side of body: hemispheres communicate ________.

ipsilaterally

48

Both Broca's area and Wernicke's primarily driven by:

dominant hemisphere

49

dominant hemisphere primarily analytic: well-suited for LLM:

language, logic, math skills

50

nondom hemisphere assoc with ____, _____, ____ cognition, and _______ processing.

creativity, intuition, musical, spatial

51

______ does not result to which side of the brain is dominant.

Handedness