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Flashcards in emerald glass Deck (43):
1

when lipids leave the stomach, what stages of digestion have been accomplished?

physical digestion, reducing particle size

2

what enzymes are added when lipids leave stomach?

pancreatic lipase, co-lipase, bile, and one I forgot

3

what is the enzyme added when lipids just leave stomach besides pancreatic lipase, colipase, and bile?

cholesterol esterase

4

true/false: all lipids enter circulation through lymphatic system?

false. small free fatty acids enter the circulation directly

5

describe the structure of a micelle

hydrophobic ends toward center and charged ends oriented toward aq. environment. they collect lipids within their hydrophobic centers

6

what conditions promote lipid mobilization from fat stores?

postabsorptive and fasting states

7

what hormones promote lipid mobilization

decrease in insulin and increase in epinephrine and cortisol will increase lipid mobilization from adipocytes

8

what is the ratio of free FA to glycerol produced through lipid mobilization

3:1

9

primary method of transporting free FA in blood

bonded to albumin and other carrier proteins. much smaller amount will remain unbonded.

10

order the lipoproteins from greatest percentage protein to least percentage protein. circle those primarily involved in triacylglycerol transport

HDL>LDL>IDL>VLDL>chylomicrons. The two least dense are primary triacylglycerol transporters. The two most dense are mostly involved in cholesterol transports.

11

lipoproteins are synthesized primarily by which two organs?

liver and intestine

12

where did you mess up the order in the lipoproteins?

it goes HDL>LDL>IDL, not HDL>IDL>LDL

13

under what conditions is HMG-CoA reductase most active

in absence of cholesterol and when stimulated by insulin

14

in what cellular region does HMG-CoA reductase exist

smooth ER

15

what proteins are specific to the formation and transmission of cholesteryl esters?

LCAT and CETP

16

What is the function of LCAT

catalyzes esterification of cholesterol to form cholesteryl esters

17

what is the function of CETP

promotes transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to IDL, form LDL

18

what kind of reaction does LCAT catalyze

esterification

19

what is the substrate of LCAT

cholesterol

20

what is the product of the LCAT reaction

cholesteryl esters

21

what does CETP promote the transfer of

cholesteryl esters

22

CETP promotes the transfer of a FG from what to what

HDL to IDL, forming LDL

23

draw palmitic acid

...

24

draw 18:3 (all-cis-9,12,15)

...

25

draw an omega-6 FA

last double bond is 6 away from end

26

what is the first step in the addition of acetyl-CoA to a growing FA chain?

attachment of acetyl-CoA to acyl carrier protein (so that two can be joined)

27

what is the second step in the addition of acetyl-CoA to a growing FA chain?

bond formation between molecules

28

what is the third step in the addition of acetyl-CoA to a growing FA chain?

reduction of a carboxyl group

29

what is the fourth step in the addition of acetyl-CoA to a growing FA chain?

dehydration

30

what is the fifth step in the addition of acetyl-CoA to a growing FA chain?

reduction of a double bond

31

how is beta-ox of unsat different from that of sat FA?

for unsat, you gotta change stereochem. you need an additional isomerase and an additional reductase

32

T/F: FA are synthesized in cytoplasm and modified by enzymes in smooth ER?

T

33

why are FA used to create ketone bodies instead of creating glucose?

FA degradation results in large amounts of acetyl-CoA, which cannot freely enter the gluconeogenic pathway. only odd-numbered FA can provide the final malonyl-CoA for gluconeo

34

what conditions favor ketogenesis

prolonged fasting and increased conc of acetyl-CoA

35

where does ketogenesis occur

liver

36

what conditions favor ketolysis

prolonged fasting, like ketogenesis. low energy state in brain and muscle.

37

what tissues favor ketolysis

brain and muscle. not liver.

38

T/F: bodily proteins will commonly be broken down to provide acetyl-CoA for lipid synthesis

false. proteins are more valuable to cell than lipids, thus they will not commonly be broken down for lipid synthesis

39

where does the bulk of protein digestion occur?

small intestine

40

what is the fate of the carbon skeleton during protein processing?

transport to liver for processing into glucose or ketone bodies

41

what is the fate of the amino group during protein processing?

feed into urea cycle for excretion

42

what is the fate of the side chains during protein processing?

basic side chains are treated like amino group, others are treated like carbon skeleton (tsport to liver for processing into glucose or ketone bodies)

43

function of HMG-CoA reductase

cholesterol synth