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Flashcards in Path Deck (150):
0

Alcian blue stains what? What dz?

Mucopolysaccaride
Schnabels cav optic atrophy

1

What does von kossa stain and what dz

Calcium
Band k

2

Ziehl neelaen stains what?

Acid fast organisms

3

Collidal iron stains what? Used for what dz?

Mucopolysacc
Macular k dystropjy

4

What are desmin, myoglobin ihc stains used for?

Rhabdo

5

Whats the s-100 stain used for?

Neurofibroma and melanoma

6

What are hmb-45 and melan -a stains used for?

Nevius
Melanoma

7

What does acanthosis mean?

Thickening

8

Muir torre is ass w seb cell ca and also what other eyelid lesion?

Keratoacanthoma

9

Whats the defining feature histologically of verruca?

Pointy w LOTS of KERATIN

10

Whats bacillary angiomatosis?

Eschar 2/2 bartonella

11

Whats inverted follicular keratosis?

Sebhorric keratosis that become irritated

12

Whats the most common type of bcc?

Nodular

13

What type of bcc is most likely to recur?

Morpheaform

14

Whats gorlin goltz syndrome?

Pple w genetic predisposition to bcc
Get it young
May have tumors in place of wisdom teeth

15

What type of stain for seb cell ca and what type of spread?

Oil red o
Pagetoid

16

Whats the histology of an ephilis (freckle)?

Melanocytes producing more pigment

17

Whats the histology of a nevus

MORE number of melanocytes that stack up on each other and go into dermis

18

Whats the histology of lentigo?

More melanocytes but in their normal location at bottom of epidermis spreads linearly.
(Nevus- melanocytes stack up on each other and grow into dermis)

19

Where do melanocytes arise?

Neural crest

20

Where is a junctional nevus located?

At jxn between dermis and epidermis

21

Where is compound nevus locted and how does it appear clinically?

Epidermis and dermis and appears raised

22

Whats lentigo maligna melanoma?

Lentigo in jxn area that becomes a melanoma.
Usually middle aged pple sun exposed skin
Lesion may wax and wane

23

Whats the most common type of skin melanoma?

Superficial spreading

24

Who gets superficial spreading melanoma (most common type) and how does it appear

Younger pt can grow on any surface
Pagerois spread

25

Limbal dermoid associated w what syndrome?

Goldenhaar

26

Peters is ass w mom doing what during pregnancy

Etoh or warfarin

27

Whats labrador dystrophy of the k?

Actinic sub damage to k appears as yellowish deposits in stroma

28

Whats the term when the k stroma is inflammed?

Interstitial keratitis
Causes:
Hsv
Tb
Syphillis
Cogans syndrome

29

In schnabels what is contained in the empty spaces?

Hyaluronic acid

30

histologically, in fuchs, what happens to the k endo?

the posterior part becomes thickened with banded collagen

31

whats subluxation of the lens?

displacement of the lens- in its plane

32

whats luxation of the lens

displacemen of the lens out of its plane

33

in what direction does the lens weill-marchesani luxate? and inheritence pattern

forward/back 2/2 microspherophakia
likely AD

34

lens findings in alports and inher pattern

anterior lenticonus
x-linked dominant

35

Lowes syndrome pseudonym and inheritence pattern

oculocerebral-renal syndrome
x linked recessive

36

main eye issue in lowe syndrome

glaucoma (50%)

37

what causes morgagnian globules/cataract?

broken down cortex

38

histolocalli what causes psc?

"bladder cells"- ie epi cells that abnormally migrate posteriorly and swell

39

whats the histology of a rubella cataract?

persistance of fetal nucleus in the center

40

what causes PCO?

leftover epi cells proliferate at the edge of the capsular bag. When they group they are called elschning pearls

41

what type of bug is p acnes

gram + fillamentous

42

how does the lens nourish itself?

anaerobic pathway- in high BG shift to HMP shunt

43

what % of sporadic aniridia will have willms tumor?

1/3

44

whats gillespie syndrome and whats the inher?

aniridia w MR and cerebellar ataxia
AR

45

Most common location of iris coloboma?

inf- nasal

46

in trisomy 13 (patau) the baby will have iris and ciliary body coloboma- what is found in the place of the cb?

cartiledge

47

how do you treat iris melanoma?

excise only- it does not metastsize

48

remember the ddx of iris nodules

brushfield spots (downs)
lisch nodules (nf1)
JXG
bussaca/koppe/berlin (sarcoid)

49

3 area of adhesion of uvea to globe

SS
Vortex veins
ONH

50

Meduloepithelioma of cb- benign or malig, what abnormal tissue may you see on path?

benign
calcium

51

in end stage glaucoma the vessels by the nerve get pushed where?

nasally

52

whats the path of melanomalytic glaucoma?

macrophages eating melanoma cells clogging tm

53

whats the gene in pseudoex?

LOXL1

54

Phacolytic glaucoma- intact capsule or violated?

intact

55

phacoanaphylactic glaucoma- intact bag or violated?

violated

56

name 3 types of membranes that can grown over the angle

1) nvg
2) ice
3) epi downgrowth

57

whats the mechanism of iris distortion in ice syndrome?

abnorm K endo grows down--> membrane covers iris/angle-->pinches iris-->distorts iris-->grows into crypts--> distorts iris stroma

58

ice- unilateral or bilateral?

unilateral

59

which part of the CB makes aqueous?

non-pig epithelium

60

whats the histology of steroid induced glaucoma?

GAG deposition in the TM

61

whats the hostology of haabs striae?

horizontal breaks in descemets seen in congenital glaucoma

62

what is asteroid made of?

calcium apetite spheres in vitreous

63

how many layers in retina and name them

9
nfl
gang cell
in plex
in nuc
outer plex
outer nuc
PR
RPE
Bruchs

64

Whats the watershed zone for perfusion of the retina

the inner nuclear layer

65

whats the "mulberry" lesion in the retina and what dz?

astrocytic hamartoma- tuberous sclerosis

66

whats the generic name of jetrea?

ocriplasmin

67

how much ON sample do you want to take in RB?

10mm

68

whats would you see in an eye developing sympathetic ophthalmia?

diffuse granulomatous panuveitis with exudative detachments

69

has RB OU- chance offspring will have RB?

45%

70

has unilateral RB- chance offspring will be effected?

7%

71

no hx of RB- chance offspring will have RB?

<1%

72

If spread to CNS prognosis is

6 mo to live

73

trilateral RB?

RB OU with pinealblastoma

74

if optic nerve extention is suspected- whats the next step in w/u?

LP

75

when do you enucleate in RB?

If the tumor is >50% of globe

76

if an RB is small (<50%) how do you treat?

high dose systemic chemo to decr tumor burden (with serial EUAs to make sure the tumor is decreasing), then local treatment with laser or cryo

77

how do you clinically dx RB?

Bscan and exam - will show calcifications

78

why might RB present with hypopyon?

if tumor cells float into AC

79

When would you do plaque radiotherapy in RB?

salvage therapy if other therapies have failed

80

how long after dx with bilateral RB might a child be dx with osteosarcoma or other secondary tumors like pinealoma, malignant melanoma?

9 yrs later

81

Whats pseudoexfoliative material made of?

Basement menbrane material

82

What % of pple dx w choroidal melanoma have metastatic dz at that time?

2%

83

pam w atypia progresses to melanoma what % of the time

50%

84

whats a meduloepithelioma derived from?

primitive medullary epithelium (primitive retina)

85

whats a fuchs adenoma?

CB tumor that is white and encapsulated. stains PAS positive

86

Should you consider a retinocytoma to be equivalent to a RB?

Yes. even though its more differentiaed, its considered like a RB

87

What did the COMS study show for large melanomas?

no benefit in survival in doing radiation prior to enuclation in large choroidal melanomas

88

what chromosome is NF1 found on?

17

89

what did coms show for medium sized melanomas?

no difference in rates of mets in pts getting enucleation vs plaque

90

how do melanomas tend to spread?

through the sclera

91

what is the systemic workup for melanoma?

physical exam
LFTs
CXR

92

What color are lisch nodules?

tan

93

what color are iris mamliation?

same color as iris

94

whats the inheritance of NF1?

AD

95

ocular melanoma: this location has best prognosis and this location has the worst

iris best (just excise)
CB (worst)

96

whats the special stain for merkel cell ca?

chromogranin

97

what does mucor look like under the scope

hyphae branch at 90 degree angles

98

what does aspergillus look like under the scope?

hypae branch in finger-like projections

99

Most common location of iris melanoma

inferio-temporal iris

100

which type of leukemia mets to the orbit most?

ALL (bimodal distribution)

101

whats the other name of a meduloepithelioma, what part of the ciliary body is it a tumor of, and how is it treated?

diktioma
tumor of non-pigmented ciliary epithelium
enuc vs observation
can occur in ONH or retina

102

does alphagan cause pupillary constriction?

yes, bc of weak alpha 2 effect

103

what acute inflammation of the meibomian glands called?

internal hordeolum

104

whats an external hodeolum?

acute inflammation of zeiss glands (around eyelashes)

105

loss of what substance in the lens can lead to cataract formation?

glutathione

106

what does candida look like
what does fusarium look like

candida is a yeast and looks like a bud
fusarium is long filamentous fungi

107

what type of immune rxn is scleritis?

type 3

108

what causes dorsal midbrain syndrome in a kid?

pinealoma

109

where does conj melanoma met to?
where does uveal melanoma met to?

conj- lymph nodes
uvea- liver

110

what type of collagen in the lens capsule?

type 4

111

whats the most common eye dz associated with nevus of ota? (hint its not uveal melanoma)

glaucoma

112

whats the inheritance of marfans?

AD (tall dominant person)

113

bcc is most likely to met to orbit if its in which location?

medial canthus

114

name 2 stains for calcium

alizarin red
von kossa

115

what type of radiation is used for choroidal melanoma

Iodine-125

116

what causes bietti dystrophy?

defect in lipid metabolism

117

what does the term "tapetoretinal" mean?

retinal dystrophy effecting the PR and RPE

118

gelatinous k dystrophy whats the inher?

AR- its an amyloid thing

119

how do you treat capillary hemangioma?

topical timolol and oral propranolol

120

what fixative do you use it sending specimen for electron microscopy?

gluteraldehyde

121

a whole eyeball is going for formalin fixation, how do you prepare it?

suspend whole eyeball in formalin for 12 hours before cutting into it

122

fungal infection causes what type of local immune rxn

necrotizing granuloma

124

iris coloboma is considered "typical" if it is located where? what is it ass w?

infero-nasal "nasal= "normal= typical"
can be associated with colobomas in other parts of the eye

125

when is an iris coloboma atypical?

if its anywhere besides inf-nasal

126

Men2b what tumors do they get?

Medullary ca of the thyroid
Pheochromocytoma

127

whats a reducing substance in the lens that protects against cataract?

glutathione

128

whats the volume of the vitreous?

4mL

129

whats the special path finding in ON glioma?

Rosenthal fibers (degenerating eosinophilic filaments)

130

whats the special path finding in ON meningioma?

psammoma bodies (swirly round red thing made of calcium)

131

what characterizes hemangiopericytoma on path?

stag-horn vascular channels

132

what do antoni a cells look like?

nuclear palisading (nuclii all lined up in a row)

133

what does breast cancer look like?

"indian file" round blue nuclii all lined up in rows

134

what do you see on path with rhabdo?

cross-striations

135

what does ON glioma look like?

super dense!!! no spaces no cytoplasm (and don't forget red Rosenthal fibers)

136

where do you see psammoma bodies?

ON meningioma

137

what do spindle A cell (melanoma) look like?

cigar shaped w chromatin stripe

138

what do spindle B look like?

cigar shaped w distinct dot nucleolus

139

what are melanoma epitheliod cells?

look cells that "look at you"

140

metastatic adenocarcinoma to the choroid will stain with what?

PAS

141

What do endophytic and exophytic mean when it comes to RB?

endophytic- from inner retina
exophytic- from outer retina

142

Flexner wintersteiner and homer-wright whats the difference?

Flexner - has a clear lumen
horner- just has pink tangles in the middle

143

what does coats disese look like on path?

exudates and lipid filled retina

144

what do you see in a medulloepithelioma?

cysts and hyaline

145

where does meduloepithelioma arise?

any tissue derived from neuroectoderm (retina, on, cb epi, iris epi)

146

what color does GMS look like in the cornea?

green

147

where is iron deposited in Fleischer ring?

in epithelium- looks blue on iron stain

148

non-sulfated keratin sulfate in which dz?

macular dystrophy

149

in posterior polymorphous, what does the K endo look like?

epi!

150

what does a plexiform neurofibroma look like?

"bag of worms"- round things full of mucin