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Flashcards in Path Lower Urinary Tract Deck (36)
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31

Do tumours commonly metastasise to the kidney

YES esp lymphoma (ats and cattle)
- carcinomas and sarcomas
- randomly scattered multiple nodules
- usually BOTH kidneys
> neoplastic cells form sheets of cells within the renal parenchyma
*IF FOUND IN CATTLE SUSPECT EBL (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) AND REPORT: ALL TUMOURS IN CATTLE ARE NOTIFIABLE*

32

DDX for pyogranulomatous inflammation centred on blood vessels on the kidney capsule in cats?

FIP

33

Ddx for pale foci of tumour growth in cattle kidneys?

EBL NOTIFIABLE!!!

34

Which neoplasms are seen in the LUT?

- retention of urine ^ exposure time to carcinogen (pdf)
> epithelial tumours
- TCC/TCP (pedunculated, trigone of bladder, can cause hydronephrosis, males pdf, mets to local LN/lung/kidney)
- SCC and adenocarcinomas from transitional epithelium
> mesenchymal tumours
- leimyomas (circumscribed pale firm masses, = normal sm mm)
- fibromas from lamina propria
- lymphoma
- rhabdomyosarcoma (rare tumour of skeletal mm, bladder /urethra young large breed dogs, embryonic myoblasts invovled, botyroid masses protrude into bladder lumen, local invasion, occ mets.)

35

Outline developmental disorders of the kidneys

> renal aplasia (failure one/both kidneys to develop)
> hypoplasia (incomplete development fewer nephrons or incompete development)
> extopic kidneys (pelvic canal/inguinal position, histo structure and funtion normal but malposition of ureters pdf obstruction and 2* hydronephorsis)
> fused kidneys (cranial/caudal pole - horseshoe shape but structurally and functionally normal)
> dysplasia *MOST COMMON* abnormal differentition
- pdf lhasa apso, shutzu, golden retriver
- progressive juvenile nephropathy (familial dz)
- severe bilateral renal fibrosis
- shrunken pale kidneys, pitted surface: DDX FIBROSIS BY.. foetal glomeruli, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, tubular dilation
> renal cysts (spherical thin walled distension of cortical/medullary tubules, ddx pelvic hydronephrosis where single pelvis enlarged, in this dz multiple cysts throughout cortex and medulla)
- congenital, 2* renal dysplasia or acquired d/t fibrosis or other renal dz, genetic and toxic causes
- polycystic kidney dz (heritable condition in persian cats and bull terriers)
- large cysts can compress adjacent parenchyma and impair renal function

36

Developmental anomalies of the ureters and urachus

> ureteral aplasia and hypoplasia
- obstruction - hydronephrosis
> ectopic ureters
- empty into urethra, vagina, bladder neck
- pdf obstruction/infection
- urinary incontinence clinical sign
> patent urachus
- foals
- direct channel bladder - umbilicus
- dribbling urine from umbilicus (d/t underlying omphalitis/congenital urethral obstruction ^ bladder pressure)