✅ Patho - Cellular Response to Injury Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅ Patho - Cellular Response to Injury Deck (58):
1

What caused SER Hypertrophy in the liver?

Barbiturates

2

Stimulus for the hypertrophy of the uterus during pregnancy

Estrogen

3

Define hyperplasia

Increase in the number of cells

4

Mechanisms of atrophy

Dec protein synthesis
Inc protein degradation (ubiquitin proteosome pathway) and autophagy

5

Usual cause of metaplasia

Chronic irritation

6

Most common metaplasia

Squamous metaplasia

7

Examples of squamous metaplasia

Vit A deficiency, smokers

8

Ex of squamous to columnar metaplasia

Barrett esophagus
Cervical cancer

9

Ex of connective tissue metaplasia

Myositis ossificans

10

First manifestation of reversible cell injury

Hydropic changes/Vacuolar degeneration

11

Which transport mechanism in a cell is automatically activated once cellular swelling occurs?

Na K ATPase pump

12

Eosinophilia is seen in necrosis. T or F

T

12

What are myelin figures?

Whorled phospholipid precipitates derived from damaged cell membranes; phagocytized or degraded into fatty acids which in turn may lead to calcium soap formation.

12

Nuclear changes

Karyolysis
Pyknosis
Karyorrhexis

12

Differentiate:

Karyolysis
Pyknosis
Karyorrhexis

Karyolysis - basophilia and fading of chromatin
Pyknosis - shrinkage and basophilia
Karyorrhexis - fragmentation

12

Localized area of coagulative necrosis

Infarct

12

What happens to architecture if dead tissues in coag necrosis compared to caseous?

In coag, archi is preserved for a few days while in caseation, archi is not preserved

12

End product of liquefactive necrosis

Pus (digestion of dead cells)

12

Brain undergoes what type of necrosis

Liquefactive

12

Granuloma formation happens in what type of necrosis?

Caseation

12

Other than TB, what are the other causes of caseation necrosis?

Caseate my CHS

CCHS

Cryptococcosis
Coccidiomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Syphilis

13

In fat necrosis, fatty acids combine with calcium to produce grossly visible chalky white areas

Saponification

14

2 types of fat necrosis

Enzymatic
Traumatic

15

In acute pancreatitis, what electrolyte abnormality occurs as a result of saponification?

Hypocalcemia (saponification consumes calcium)

16

Components and morphology of fibrinoid necrosis

Immune complexes + fibrin

Bright pink and amorphous

17

Which membrane bound organelle undergo apoptosis after they have completed their function

Lysososmes

18

Most characteristic feature of apoptosis when viewed under a microscope

Chromatin condensation

19

Marker for cells undergoing apoptosis

Caspases

20

During apoptosis, dna when visualized during electrophoresis are known as?

DNA ladders

21

Movement of _____from inner leaflet to the outer leaflet of the cell happens in apoptosis

Phosphatidylserine

22

Membrane alterations and recognitions by phagocytes in apoptosis is detected by what stain?

Annexin V

23

Bad boys of apoptosis

Bax
Bak
Bcl-2

24

In autophagy, organelles are sequestered from the cytoplasm in an

Autophagic vacuole

25

What are the most common causes of fatty liver?

Alcoholism
Nonalcoholic fatty liver (diabetes, obesity)

26

Steatosis is due to the accumulation of

TGL

27

Steatosis is stained using

Sudan IV or oil RED-O

28

Steatosis in the heart looks like

Uniform or with alternating bands of yellow and red (tigered effect)

29

Strawberry gallbladder

Cholesterolosis

30

In xanthoma or xanthelasma, lipids are found where?

Subcutaneous tissue

31

In cholesterolosis, lipids deposit in the

Lamina propria of the GB

32

Triad of hemochromatosis

Micronodular cirrhosis
DM
Skin pigmentation

33

Excess of normally secreted proteins in multiple myeloma

Russell bodies

34

Accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins in alzheimers

Neurofibrillary tangles

35

Hyaline arteriosclerosis appears as

Homigenous glassy pink appearance on H and E

36

Most common exogenous pigment deposited

Carbon

37

Define anthracosis

when carbon blackens the tissues of the lungs

38

Wear and tear pigment

Lipofuscin

39

Lipofuscin accumulates in the colon follwing prolonged use of anthraquinone containing laxatives. What is this clinical condition called?

Melanosis coli

40

Hemosiderin is visualized using what stain

Prussian blue

41

With prussian blue staining, iron is converted to blue black ____

Ferric ferrocyanide

42

Hereditaryextreme accumulation of iron

Hemachromomatosis

43

What is the most frequent cause of acquired hemochromatosis?

Repeated blood transfusions

44

Treatment for hemachromatosis

Phlebotomy, chelation (deferoxamine, deferasirox)

45

Psammoma bodies are found in which disorders

PSaMMoma

Papillary thyroid ca
Serous cystandenoca of ovaries
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

46

Occur in normal tissues due to hypercalcemia

Metastatic calcification

47

2 types of calcification

Dystrophic and metastatic

48

Which type of lung ca causes paraneoplastic ca?

Squamous cell ca

49

What type of lung ca causes paraneoplastic SIADH and Cushings syndrome

Small cell lung CA