Flashcards in ✅ Patho - Cellular Response to Injury Deck (58):
What caused SER Hypertrophy in the liver?
Stimulus for the hypertrophy of the uterus during pregnancy
Increase in the number of cells
Mechanisms of atrophy
Dec protein synthesis
Inc protein degradation (ubiquitin proteosome pathway) and autophagy
Usual cause of metaplasia
Most common metaplasia
Examples of squamous metaplasia
Vit A deficiency, smokers
Ex of squamous to columnar metaplasia
Ex of connective tissue metaplasia
First manifestation of reversible cell injury
Hydropic changes/Vacuolar degeneration
Which transport mechanism in a cell is automatically activated once cellular swelling occurs?
Na K ATPase pump
Eosinophilia is seen in necrosis. T or F
What are myelin figures?
Whorled phospholipid precipitates derived from damaged cell membranes; phagocytized or degraded into fatty acids which in turn may lead to calcium soap formation.
Karyolysis - basophilia and fading of chromatin
Pyknosis - shrinkage and basophilia
Karyorrhexis - fragmentation
Localized area of coagulative necrosis
What happens to architecture if dead tissues in coag necrosis compared to caseous?
In coag, archi is preserved for a few days while in caseation, archi is not preserved
End product of liquefactive necrosis
Pus (digestion of dead cells)
Brain undergoes what type of necrosis
Granuloma formation happens in what type of necrosis?
Other than TB, what are the other causes of caseation necrosis?
Caseate my CHS
In fat necrosis, fatty acids combine with calcium to produce grossly visible chalky white areas
2 types of fat necrosis
In acute pancreatitis, what electrolyte abnormality occurs as a result of saponification?
Hypocalcemia (saponification consumes calcium)
Components and morphology of fibrinoid necrosis
Immune complexes + fibrin
Bright pink and amorphous
Which membrane bound organelle undergo apoptosis after they have completed their function
Most characteristic feature of apoptosis when viewed under a microscope
Marker for cells undergoing apoptosis
During apoptosis, dna when visualized during electrophoresis are known as?
Movement of _____from inner leaflet to the outer leaflet of the cell happens in apoptosis
Membrane alterations and recognitions by phagocytes in apoptosis is detected by what stain?
Bad boys of apoptosis
In autophagy, organelles are sequestered from the cytoplasm in an
What are the most common causes of fatty liver?
Nonalcoholic fatty liver (diabetes, obesity)
Steatosis is due to the accumulation of
Steatosis is stained using
Sudan IV or oil RED-O
Steatosis in the heart looks like
Uniform or with alternating bands of yellow and red (tigered effect)
In xanthoma or xanthelasma, lipids are found where?
In cholesterolosis, lipids deposit in the
Lamina propria of the GB
Triad of hemochromatosis
Excess of normally secreted proteins in multiple myeloma
Accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins in alzheimers
Hyaline arteriosclerosis appears as
Homigenous glassy pink appearance on H and E
Most common exogenous pigment deposited
when carbon blackens the tissues of the lungs
Wear and tear pigment
Lipofuscin accumulates in the colon follwing prolonged use of anthraquinone containing laxatives. What is this clinical condition called?
Hemosiderin is visualized using what stain
With prussian blue staining, iron is converted to blue black ____
Hereditaryextreme accumulation of iron
What is the most frequent cause of acquired hemochromatosis?
Repeated blood transfusions
Treatment for hemachromatosis
Phlebotomy, chelation (deferoxamine, deferasirox)
Psammoma bodies are found in which disorders
Papillary thyroid ca
Serous cystandenoca of ovaries
Occur in normal tissues due to hypercalcemia
2 types of calcification
Dystrophic and metastatic
Which type of lung ca causes paraneoplastic ca?
Squamous cell ca