✅Patho-Heart Flashcards Preview

PTHO > ✅Patho-Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅Patho-Heart Deck (103):
1

Natriuretic peptide in the ventricles

Type B and C

2

Sound that corresponds to the closure of the semilunar valves

S2

3

S3 is due to

Sudden rush of blood in overloaded ventricles

4

s3 is physiologic in

Children and young adults

5

S3 is pathologic for people

40 and above

6

S4 is due to

Noncompliant ventricles

7

Heart sounds that is always pathologic

S4

8

Earliest symptom in left sided heart failure

Dyspnea

9

Perihilar congestion in Left sided HF

Bat wing configuration

10

Prominent heart sound in left sided heart failure

Prominent left sided S3

11

Nutmeg liver is found in

R sided HF

12

Causes of high output failure

Beriberi
Anemia
Hyperthyroidism
AV Fistula

13

Most important in determining the severity of TOF

Pulmonic stenosis

14

Percent of all childbirths with Congenital heart disease

1%

15

Most common genetic risk for CHD

Down syndrome

16

Most common cyanotic CHD

TOF

17

2 forms of TOF

As determined by the degree of subpulmonic stenosis

Mild form - Pink TOF
Sever form - Classic TOF

18

TGA is associated with offsprings of

Diabetic mothers

19

Cyanotic heart disease with VSD as primary shunts

Truncus 1
Tetralogy 4


TGA but only 35 percent

20

ASD/PFO/ PDA shunt in cyanotic heart diseases

TGA but have vsd in 35 %
Tricuspid atresia 3
TAPVR 5

21

Most common variant of TAPVR

Supracardiac variant that drains to brachiocephalic vein

22

ASD associated with downs

Primum

23

3 types of ASD

Secundum 90%
Primum 5%
Sinus venosus 5%

24

Most common adult CHD

ASD

25

Most common CHD

VSD

26

Multiple VSDs maye be seen in the _______ and is called

Muscular septum
Swiss cheese septum

27

Types of VSD

Which one is most common?

Membranous 90%

Infundibular
Ventricular septum

28

Percentage of VSDs that will close spontaneously

50

29

Surgicl correction of VSD should be done at

1 year of age

30

2 forms of AVSD

Partial
Complete

31

2 types of coarctation of the aorta

Infantile
Adult

32

Turner's syndrome is associated with which CHD

Infantile coarctation of the aorta

33

CHD in congenital rubella syndrome

PDA

34

Cardiac defects in marfan

MVP
Aortic dissection

35

Prinzmetal angina is caused by

Vasoconstriction due to TXA2 or increased endothelin

36

Other name for unstable angina

CRESCENDO angina

37

Primary pharmacologic drug for prinzmetal angina

CCB

38

Sudden cardiac death is defined as

Death within 1 hr of cardiac symptoms

39

Sudden cardiac death is due to

Arrythmia

40

Sudden cardiac death usually occurs at what time of the day

Early morning (highest level of stress hormones)

41

Inherited long QT syndrome that can cause sudden cardiac death

Romano ward syndrome

42

What medications are contraindicated in

Inferior wall MI

43

Pain med usually given in MI

Morphine

44

Types of MI

Q wave infarction/ST elevation
Non Q wave infarction/ ST depression

45

Heart layers involved in ST elevation MI

Transmural

46

Heart layers involved in st depression MI

Subendocardial/partial thickness

47

MI affects which top 3 blood vessels

LAD
RCA
LCX

48

Gross changes in MI

Mottling 4 hrs
Bright yellow 1 week
Surrounding red granulation tissue 2 weeks
Gray white scar 2 months

49

Coagulation necrosis in MI happen in how many hrs?

4-12 hrs

50

Changes during coag necrosis in MI

Wavy fibers
Myctolysis

51

Gross changes in MI can be seen after

12 hrs

52

Acute inflammation (neutrophils is most prominent at

Day 1-day 3

53

Macrophage invasion and the day where the heart is softest is on

Day 3

54

Granulation tissue in MI can be seen in

1-2 weeks

55

What time frame are the ff events in MI reperfusion seen?

Completely salvageable
Partially salvageable
No reduction in MI size

Before 20 mins
3-6 hrs after
More than 6 hrs

56

Myocardial rupture in MI usually happens to those with

Virgin MI

57

What drugs are given in MI to affect ventricular remodeling?

Ace inhibitors

58

Secondary form of pericarditis that occurs after MI

Dressler syndrome

59

Triad of dressler's syndrome

Fever
Pleuritic pain
Pericarditis/pericardial effusion

60

Cardiac enzyme that can diagnose reinfarction

CKMB

61

Weight of the heart

300-350g (50g less in females)

62

Failure to open completely and prevents forward flow

Stenosis

63

Failure to close completely and allows reversed flow

Regurgitation

64

Opening snap, RHD, diastolic rumble, AF, accentuated S2, diastolic rumble

Mitral stenosis

65

Murmur associated with pulmonary regurgitation? Aortic regurgitation?

Graham steel murmur

Austin flint murmur

66

Pulsating nail bed with elevation of the nail

Quincke's pulse

67

Systolic pulsation of the uvula

Mueller's sign

68

Femoral retrograde bruits

Durosier's sign

69

Pistol shot femorals

Traube's sign

70

BP LE> BP UE

Hill's sign

71

Onset of symptoms in RF after infection

2-3 weeks

72

Major manifestations in Jones criteria

Migratory polyarthritis
Carditis
Subcutaneous nodules
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham chorea

73

Minor manifestations in RF

Fever, arthralgia, elevated acute phase reactants

74

What valvular disease is seen in RF as compared to RHD?

Rf mitral regurgitation
Rhd mitral stenosis

75

Dx of RF based on criteria

2 major
1 major 2 minor

76

Morphology of RF and RHD

Aschoff bodies found in ALL layers
Anitschow cells

77

What are anitschow cells

Macrophages or histiocytes containing abundant cytoplasm, round nuclei with slender, wavy ribbons of chromatin found in RHD

78

Irregular thickenings of the endocardium in RHD

Maccallum plaques

79

Usual bacteria in IE

S viridans

80

Etiology of IE in IV drug users

S aureus

81

Etiology of IE in people with prosthetic cardiac valves

S epidermidis

82

Etiology of IE in people with GI or GU surgery

S bovis

83

Most common sx in IE

Fever

84

Most common lab finding in IE

Anemia

85

Other name for nonbacterial theombotic endocarditis

Marantic endocarditis

86

Septic emboli that lodged in extremities in IE. Painless

Janeway lesions

87

Findings in IE

Bacteria FROM JANE

Fever
Roth spots
Osler nodes
Murmur
Janeway lesions
Anemia
Nail bed hemorrhage
Emboli

88

vegetation assoc with SLE

Libman sacks disease

89

Vegetation in libman sacks may contain

Hematoxylin bodies

90

Small warty vegetations along the lines of closure of valve leaflets usually assoc with

Rhd

91

Large irregular masses on valve cusps that can extend to the chordaw is found in

IE

92

Cardiomyopathy is diagnosed using a

Bioptome

93

Causes of dilated cardiomyopathy

Abcccd

Alcohol
Beriberi
Chagas
Coxsackie B
Cocoaine
Doxorubicin

94

Most common infectious cause of myocarditis

Coxsackie B

95

Transient apical ballooning usually stress induced also known as gebrochenes herz syndrome

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

96

Microbes involved in myocarditis

Coxsackieviruses
T. Cruzi
Borrelia burgderfori

97

Define electrical alternans

QRS complexes alternate in amplitude

98

Most common finding in cardiac tamponade

Pulsus paradoxus - drop in BP of 15mmHG with inhalation

99

What are the ecg changes seen in pericarditis

Diffuse ST elevation of all leads except AVR AVF V1
PR depression

100

A type of chronic pericarditis that follows suppurative or caseous pericarditis, previous cardiac surgery or irradiation to the mediastinum.

Adhsive mediastinopericarditis

101

Most common heart tumor

Metastasis

102

Most common primary heart tumor in children

Rhabdomyosarcoma

103

Most common site of metastasis in the heart

Pericardium