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Flashcards in Pathology - Cellular Response Deck (83):
1

Physiologic hypertrophy

Athletes
Pregnant uterus

2

Pathologic hypertrophy

Hypertension

3

Constitute an increase in the NUMBER of cells in an organ or tissue resulting into increased volume size

Hyperplasia

4

SHRINKAGE in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance

Atrophy

5

Causes of Atrophy

Decreased workload
Diminished blood supply
Inadequate nutrition
Aging
Loss of endocrine stimulation

6

Reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type

Metaplasia

7

Example of metaplasia from squamous to columnar

Barrett's esophagus
Cervix

8

DISORGANIZED cellular architecture

Dysplasia

9

Most common cause of injury

Hypoxia

10

Major cause of hypoxia

Ischemia
Cardiopulmonary failure
Decrease O2 carrying capacity of blood

11

Example of ischemia

Atherosclerosis
Thrombosis

12

Due to cell membrane injury

Phospholipids

13

Due to DNA damage

Endonucleases

14

Programmed cell death

Apoptosis

15

Pro-apoptotic

Bax
Bad
Bak

16

Anti-apoptotic

Bcl-2

17

Morphologic change that follow cell death in living tissue

Necrosis

18

Initiate cell death

Caspases

19

Caspases is initiated by

Cytochrome C

20

IRREVERSIBLE condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis or apoptosis

Pyknosis or Karyopyknosis

21

FRAGMENTATION of the nucleus

Karyorrhexis

22

DISINTEGRATION and DISSOLUTION of a cell nucleus when a cell dies

Karyolysis

23

A kind of necrosis most common in solid organs

Coagulative necrosis

24

Preserve architecture

Coagulative necrosis

25

GHOST CELLS

Coagulative necrosis

26

Most common cause of coagulative necrosis

Ischemia

27

Due to digestion of enzymes

Liquefactive necrosis

28

Example of Liquefactive necrosis

Acute Cerebral Infarct

29

Cheese like appearance

Caseation necrosis

30

Lysed cells surrounded by inflammatory cells

Caseation necrosis

31

Example of Caseation necrosis

TB granuloma

32

Enzyme involve in fat necrosis

Lipase
(Digest fat within the area)

33

Fat + Calcium

Saponification

34

Most common location of fibrinoid necrosis

Arteries

35

Main protein in blood clot

Fibrin

36

Lack of O2 and blood supply
Overlying bacterial infection
Death of tissue

Wet gangrene

37

Accumulation of Carbon pigments from breathing dirty air that deposited in the lungs

Anthracotic pigment
(Microscopic Anthracotic Pigment MAP)

38

Most common cause of fatty change in adults

Alcohol

39

Major organ in fat metabolism

Liver

40

Strawberry gallbladder cause by

Cholesterol esters

41

Neurofibrillary tangles
Amyloid plaques

Alzheimer's Disease

42

Russel bodies

Multiple myeloma

43

Denaturation of protein result to pink and glassy appearance

Hyaline change

44

Deficiency in Glucocerebrosidase

Gaucher's Disease

45

Crumpled paper or tissue appearance

Gaucher Cells

46

Erlenmeyer flask in ng bones (femur)

Gaucher's disease

47

Deficiency in Hexosamidase A

Tay-sach's Disease

48

Hexosamidase A accumulation of

Gangliosides

49

Cherry Red Spot in Macula

Tay-sach's Disease

50

Deficient in Sphingomyelinase

Niemann-Pick Disease

51

Foam Cells

Niemann-Pick Disease

52

Increase in the SIZE of cells resulting to increase in the size of the organ tissue

Hypertrophy

53

Wear and tear pigment seen in aging and malnutrition

Lipofuscin

54

No organ damage

Hemosiderosis

55

With organ damage

Hemochromatosis

56

Bronze diabetes

Hemochromatosis

57

Green-brown to black pigment

Bilirubin

58

Hgb derived but WITHOUT iron content

Bilirubin

59

Major bile pigment

Bilirubin

60

Malarial pigment

Hematin ( Hemozoin )

61

Maurers Dots

P. Falciparum

62

Zieman's Dot

P. Malariae

63

James Dots

P. ovale

64

Schuffner's Dot

P. vivax

65

Kayser-Flescher Rings

Wilson's Disease

66

Hepatolenticular degeneration due to decrease levels of CERULOPLASMIN

Wilson's Disease

67

Conditions with PSaMMoma bodies / Asbestos bodies

Papillary thyroid
Serous ovarian carcinoma
Meningioma
Mesothelioma

68

Calcium deposits in non-viable or dying tissue
Normal serum calcium

Dystrophic calcification

69

Calcium deposits in vital tissues
Increase serum calcium

Metastatic calcification

70

Occurs as non-crystalline amorphous deposits or as hydroxyapatite crystals

Metastatic calcification

71

Bipolar Refringence in congo red stain

Hyaline change

72

Reactions of living tissue to injuries stimuli

Inflammation

73

Destroy or wall of injuries agents

Inflammation

74

Two major response of inflammation

Vascular
Increased vascular permeability

75

Hallmark of inflammation

Swelling or edema
Local decreased blood circulation (stasis)

76

Hallmark of early hemodynamic change; redness and warmth

Increase blood flow

77

Hallmark of Acute Inflammation

Increased vascular permeability

78

Decreased oxidative burst

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

79

Decrease NADPH oxidase

Chronic Granulomatous disease

80

Decreased leukocyte functions because of mutation affecting protein involved in lysosomal membrane traffic

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

81

Membrane attack complex

C5b-9

82

Active in Neisserial infxn

C5b-9

83

Manna binding lectin

Plasma lectins