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Flashcards in Pediatrics MOST COMMON Deck (153):
1

The most commonly used standards of Skeletal Maturation

Gruelich and Pyle

2

The most common skin disorder of infancy

Diaper Dermatitis

3

Psychosomatic illness – The most common conversion symptom.

Pseudoseizures

4

Most common cause of daytime enuresis in the preschool child

Waiting until the last minute to void urine (micturation deferral)

5

Anxiety Disorders – Obsessive-compulsive disorder:

Handwashing, continual checking of locks, and touching.

6

The most common compulsions are suicide and attempted suicide

Among preadolescents, jumping from heights is the most common method, followed by self-poisoning, hanging, stabbing and running into traffic.

7

The most common and most comprehensively studied of the learning disabilities

Dyslexia

8

The most common cause of underweight in infancy and may account for > ½ of the cases of FTT.

Nutritional neglect

9

The most common manifestation of child abuse and may be found on any body surface.

Bruises

10

The most common cause of death from physical abuse is

Head Trauma

11

The most common error in administering parenteral fluid during and after surgery

Excessive administration , particularly of dextrose in water, rather than use of isotonic solutions

12

The most common disorder of parathyroid function is transient physiologic hypoparathyroidism of the newborn infant, sometimes referred to as neonatal hypocalcemia.

Tetany

13

The most common cause of death during childhood beyond the first few months of life and represent one of the most important
causes of preventable pediatric morbidity and mortality

Injuries

14

This is the most common form of generalized albinism

OCA2 (Tyrosinase-Positive Albinism)

15

This is the most common inborn error of methionine metabolism

Homocytinuria due to cystathionine synthase deficiency (Homocystinuria Type I, Classic Homocystinuria)

16

This is the most common form of Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH)

Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) : Neonatal NKH

17

This is probably the most common of all urea cycle disorders.

Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency

18

The most common presentation is an acute attack of life-threatening coma and hypoglycemia induced by a period of fasting

Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid oxidation

19

The most common of the fatty acid oxidation disorders.

Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)

20

The most common inherited form of low HDL

Primary or familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

21

Glycogen Storage Diseases: is the most common in adults

Myophosphorylase deficiency (type V, McArdle disease)

22

The most common genetic porphyria

Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)

23

The most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism

24

This is the most common form of childhood hypoglycemia

Ketotic Hypoglycemia

25

The most common symptoms of Intracranial-Intraventricular hemorrhage

Diminished or absent Moro reflex, poor muscle tone, lethargy, and somnolence.

26

The most common and important emergency related to newborn infants in the delivery room

Failure to initiate and maintain respirations

27

The most common elective surgical procedure performed on newborn boys in the United States

Circumscision

28

The most common bacterial causes of neonatal meningitis are

Grp B Beta hemolytic strep, E. Coli and L. monocytogenes

29

Injectible progestin (Depo-Provera, DMPA): The most common side effect of DMPA is

Menstrual disturbance, either amenorrhea or abnormal vaginal bleeding

30

Emergency Contraception: The most commonly used form in the United States

Yuzpe method

31

Yuzpe Method

Consisting of combination pills totaling 200ug of "Ethinylestradiol" and 2.0 mg of "Norgestrel" or 1.0 mg "Levonorgestrel"

32

The most common side effect of Yuzpe Method

nausea (50%) and vomiting

33

The most common B-cell defect

Selective IgA deficiency

34

The most common form of Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency (SCID) in the United States

X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (XSCID)

35

The most common malignancy of childhood, and approximately 70% of cases cured by conventional chemotherapy

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

36

The most common extracranial solid tumor in children

Neuroblastoma

37

It is the most common cause of non-thrombocytopenic purpura in children

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

38

Anaphylactoid Purpura

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

39

It is a vasculitis of small vessels

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

40

The most common (commonest) cause of traveler’s diarrhea

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

41

The most common bacterial cause of nosocomial diarrhea

Clostridium difficile

42

The most common cause of death among children with sickle cell anemia

Infection

43

Viral Meningoencephalitis:
The most common arbovirus responsible for CNS infection in the United States are

St. Louis and California enceph virus

44

Eosinophilic Meningitis:
The most common cause of worldwide eosinophilic pleocytosis is

CNS infection with helminthic parasites

45

The most common cause is human infection with the rat lungworm

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

46

The most common cause of viral pneumonia, especially during infancy

RSV

47

The most common parasitic cause of diarrhea in the United States

Giardia lamblia

48

The most common hepatotropic virus that infects neonates, usually results in an asymptomatic infection.

HBV

49

In Osteomyelitis, is the most common infecting organism in all age groups, including newborns

Staphylococcus aureus

50

The most commonly acquired disorder resulting from a predominanatly T-lymphocyte defect

AIDS

51

Infections with primary phagocyte-neutrophil defects:
In Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, recurrent infection of the respiratory tract and skin are the most common sites of involvement. What is the most frequent cause of these infections.

Staphylococcus aureus

52

The most common cause of pyogenic infection of the skin

Staphylococcus aureus

53

The most common form of rat-bite fever in the United States is caused by

Streptobacillus moniliformis

54

The most common pathogen associated with CSF shunt meningitis

Staphylococcus epidermidis

55

The most common pathogen producing peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

Staphylococcus epidermidis

56

The most frequent bacterial cause of bacteremia, pneumonia, and otitis media and the secondmost common cause of meningitis in infants and children

Streptococcus pneumoniae

57

The most common cause of meningitis in adults

Streptococcus pneumoniae

58

The most common form of skin infection due to group A β-hemolytic streptococci is

Superficial pyoderma (impetigo)

59

The most common eye infection in childhood

Conjunctivitis

60

The most common serotype causing Salmonella bacteremia in the United States

Salmonella typhimurium

61

Enteric Fever:
The most common mode of transmission

Ingestion of foods or water contaminated with human feces

62

The most common form of epidemic dysentery

Shigella

63

The most common shigatoxin-producing E.coli(STEC) serotypes are

E.coli 0157:H7

64

Disease is usually manifested in younger children as an acute enteritis

Yersinia enterocolitica

65

The most common presentation of Bartonellainfection is Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD), a subacute, regional lymphadenitis caused by

Bartonella hensale

66

The most common atypical presentation, noted in 2-17% of patients, is

Parinaud’s occuloglandular syndrome

67

Clinical presentation:
- unilateral
- conjunctivitis
- preauricular lymphadenopathy

Parinaud’s occuloglandular syndrome

68

A postanginal sepsis, is a suppurative infection of the lateral pharyngeal space and septic thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein leading to septic embolization to the lungs and CNS.

Lemierre’s syndrome

69

The most commonly involved organism

Fusobacterium necrophorum

70

The most common infection in children is infection associated with appendicitis

Bacteroides fragilis

71

The most common form of cardiac tuberculosis

Pericarditis

72

This form of disease is most common in infants and malnourished or immunosuppressed patients

Miliary tuberculosis

73

The most common signs and symptoms of TB of the Middle Ear

Painless unilateral otorrhea, tinnitus, decreased hearing, facial paralyis

74

The most common of the nonvenerealspirochetal diseases.

Yaws (caused by Treponema pertenue)

75

The most common vector-borne disease in the United States.

Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)

76

Most common etiologic agent worldwide and is the predominant pathogenic fungal infection among individuals infected with HIV.

Cryptococcus neoformans

77

The most common form of cryptococcosis

Pneumonia

78

The most common predisposing factor for disseminated cryptococcosis

HIV Infection

79

The most common clinical manifestation of disseminated cryptococcosis

Subacute or chronic meningitis

80

The most common manifestation of Congenital Rubella

Intrauterine Growth Retardation

81

It has been most frequently implicated in pericarditis and myocarditis

Group B Coxsackie viruses

82

The most common causative agent Coxsackieviruses B5

?

83

The most common manifestation of parvovirus B19 is

Erythema infectiosum

84

Fifth disease

Erythema infectiosum

85

3 malignancies occurring primarily in adults with AIDS are associated with HHV8:

Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma.

86

The most common neoplasm associated with AIDS (adults)

Kaposi sarcoma

87

The most common cause of the “common cold” in adults

Rhinovirus

88

The most common opportunistic infection

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

89

The most common manifestation of renal disease, with edema, hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria, and azotemia with normal blood pressure.

Nephrotic syndrome

90

The most common parasitic cause of CNS disease, known as neurocysticercosis

Cysticercosis

91

The most common site for obstruction and symptoms

4th Ventricle

92

The most common occlusal discrepancy with approximately 45% of the population exhibiting some degree of this condition

Malocclusion: Class II occlusion (receding chin/ retrognathia)

93

The most commonly ingested object, especially in children younger than 5 yr

Coins

94

The most common cause of non-bilous vomiting

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

95

Most common with obstruction occurring distal to the ampulla of Vater in the majority of patients

Membranous form of (duodenal) atresia

96

The most common type of malrotation involves

Failure of the cecum to move into the right lower quadrant

97

The most frequent congenital GI anomaly, occurring in 2-3% of all infants

Meckel diverticulum

98

The most common cause of lower intestinal obstruction in neonates

Hirschsprung Disease

99

Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon

Hirschsprung Disease

100

The most common cause of intestinal obstruction between 3 mos. and 6 yr. of age

Intussusception

101

The most common condition requiring emergency abdominal operation in childhood.

Acute Appendicitis

102

The most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract in children

Lymphoma

103

The most common inguinal hernia in children is

Indirect inguinal hernia

104

The most common pancreatic disorder in children

Acute pancreatitis

105

The most common syndrome incorporating intrahepatic bile duct paucity.

Neonatal Cholestasis: Alagille syndrome (arteriohepatic dysplasia)

106

Neonatal Cholestasis: (arteriohepatic dysplasia)

Alagille syndrome

107

This is the most common congenital anomaly of the nose

Choanal atresia

108

The most common location for bleeding/epistaxis is in the area of

Kiesselbach’s plexus

109

In children, the most common anatomic factor associated with obstruction is

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy

110

The most common congenital laryngeal anomaly.

Laryngomalacia

111

The most common form of acute upper airway obstruction, is caused primarily by viruses

Croup

112

The most common cause is neonatal endotracheal intubation

Chronic Subglottic Stenosis

113

Most common obstruction occurring distal to the ampulla of Vater in the majority of patients

Membranous form of (duodenal) atresia

114

The most common type of malrotation involves

Failure of the cecum to move into the right lower quadrant

115

The most frequent congenital GI anomaly, occurring in 2-3% of all infants

Meckel diverticulum

116

The most common cause of lower intestinal obstruction in neonates

Hirschsprung Disease

117

Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon

Hirschsprung Disease

118

The most common cause of intestinal obstruction between 3 mos. and 6 yr. of age

Intussusception

119

The most common condition requiring emergency abdominal operation in childhood

Acute Appendicitis

120

The most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract in children

Lymphoma

121

The most common inguinal hernia in children is

Indirect Inguinal Hernia

122

The most common pancreatic disorder in children

Acute Pancreatitis

123

In children, the most common anatomic factor associated with obstruction is

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy

124

The most common tumor of the larynx in childhood; it rarely becomes malignant and often disappear after puberty

Papilloma

125

The most common form of ASD and is associated with structurally normal atrioventricular (AV) valves

Ostium Secundum Defect

126

The most common cardiac malformation, accounting for 25% of congenital heart disease

Ventricular Septal Defect

127

The most common benign cardiac tumors in children are

Myxomas

128

The most common hematologic disease of infancy and childhood

Iron deficiency Anemia

129

The most common cause of aplastic crises

Parvovirus B19

130

The most common familial and congenital abnormality of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane

Hereditary Spherocytosis

131

The most common glycolytic enzyme defect as a cause of hemolytic anemia

Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency

132

The most common acquired cause of a bleeding diathesis in children

Thrombocytopenia

133

The most common hereditary bleeding disorder

Von Willebrand disease

134

The most common genetic cause of osteoporosis, is a generalized disorder of connective tissue caused by defects in type I collagen

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)

135

Brittle bone disease

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)

136

The most common cause of postneonatal infant mortality in developed countries

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

137

The most common cause of chronic lateral knee pain

Iliotibial band tendinitis

138

The most common elbow dislocation is

Posterior dislocation

139

The most common adolescent hip disorder

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

140

Avulsion fractures: The most common areas affected

Knee (Osgood-Schlatter and Sindig-Larsen-Johannsen disease)
Ankle (Sever disease),
Medial epicondyle (Little league elbow).

141

The most commonly recognized cutaneous marker of tuberous sclerosis.

Adenoma sebaceum

142

Otitis Externa: External otitis (swimmer’s ear) is most commonly caused by

Pseudomonas aueroginosa

143

The most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood

Retinoblastoma

144

The most common disorder of the lacrimal system

Dacryostenosis: Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

145

The most common genetically determined neuropathy

Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; HMSN Type I)

146

The most common hereditary neuromuscular disease affecting all races and ethnic group

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

147

The most common type of neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses

late infantile type (Jansky-Bielschowsky)

148

The most common acquired chorea of childhood and is the sole neurologic manifestation of rheumatic fever

Sydenham chorea

149

The most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism is

Lymphocytic thyroiditis

150

The most common foreign body identified in the vagina

Wadded toilet paper

151

The most common cause of testicular pain in boys 12 yr

Testicular (spermatic cord) Torsion

152

The most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

153

The most common solid tumor of children outside of the CNS

Neuroblastoma (NB)