Flashcards in Pathoma Deck (28)
IL-8, LTB4, C5a
PG that mediates fever and pain
PGE2 (fEver and pain)
Mediate vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
(COX) PGD2, PGI2, PGE2
Mediate vasoconstriction, bronchospasm, and increased vascular permeability.
How does permeability physically occur?
(5-LO) LTC4, LTD4, LTE4
Permeability dt LTs causing PERICYTES to contract and allow fluid to leak out from post capillary venule into into tissue. (slow reacting anaphylactic substances)
These activate what cell?
1. tissue trauma
2. complement C3a and C5a
3. cross linking of cell surface IgE by antigen
mast cell activation:
Fast - histamine release
Delayed - LT release
Location of neutrophil arrival and action
post capillary venules
Weibel Palade bodies and TNF/IL-1 induce...
P-selectin and E-selectin
C5a dn LTB4 upregulate what on leukocytes
Delayed umbilical cord seperation, increased circulating neuts, recurrent bacterial infections that lack pus formation
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency.
IgG and C3b
opsonins that call neutrophils phagocytosis of pathogens
- Increased risk of pyogenic infections (phagosome cannot merge with lysosome)
- Neutropenia (due to inability to divide)
- Giant granules in leukocytes (pile up and fusion of granules near golgi)
- Defective primary hemostasis (dense granules in platelets)
- Peripheral Neuropathy
Chediak Higashi Syndrome.
Protein trafficking defect characterized by impaired phagolysosome formation and buildup of phagosomes.
Problem generating HOCl (bleach).
Catalase positive - why?
What nitroblue tetrazolium test result is positive for this disease?
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
NADPH oxidase defect.
Catalase positive Bacteria destroy H2O2, so NO SOURCE of H2O2.
Nitroblue asks if O2 --> O2- is intact --> then blue. If not intact, then colorless (positive for CGD).
How do neutrophils die? How many hours?
Within 24 hours.
Results in pus.
Neutrophils and macrophages - which is O2 dependent v. independent?
Neutrophils - O2 dependent.
Macrophages - O2 independent.
Macrophages cause these things via ___.
- Resolution and healing (shut down inflammation) via ___ and ___
- Continued acute inflammation (call in more neutrophils) via ___
- Chronic inflammation by becoming APC
-IL-10 and TGF-Beta - resolution and healing (shut down inflammation)
-IL-8 causes continued acute inflammation (call in more neutrophils)
T cells and B cells.
Can also become plasma cells.
Macrophage with abundant pink cytoplasm
Epithelioid histiocyte - the DEFINING FEATURE OF a GRANULOMA.
Description of granuloma due to: Reaction to foreign material, sarcoidosis, beryllium exposure, crohn disease, cat scratch (stellate shaped, in neck)
Noncaseating granulomas lack central necrosis.
Description of granuloma due to: TB (AFB stain) and fungal infections (GMS or silver stain)
Caseating granulomas exhibit central necrosis
What IL does macrophages secrete to differentiate CD4 to TH1?
What do TH1 cells then secrete to convert macrophages and epithelioid histiocytes and giant cells?
Mutated CD40L (Thcell) or CD40R (B cell)
Hyper IgM Syndrome - low IgA, IgG, IgE
C1 inhibitor deficiency
Sjogren has unilateral enlargement of a parotid gland. What is this indicative of (what complication of Sjogren)?
Increased risk for B cell (marginal zone) lymphoma.
mixed connective tissue disease
bone marrow (hematopoietic stem cells)
stem cell location in the bowel
stem cell location in the skin
bowel - at the base of the crypts
skin - basal layer