Flashcards in UWorld Day Seven Deck (23)
Effect flulorinated inhaled anesthetics have on:
-Brain blood flow
-GFR, renal vascualr resistance, renal plasma flow
CV - myocardial depression (dec CO, AV/Vent proessure)
REsp - respiratory depressants (decr TV, minute ventilation, hypercapnia)
-Brain - decrease vascualr resistance and increase cerebral blood flow
-decreased hepatic blood flow
Response for Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (i.e. Hib - N.menin-or-tetanus toxoid) .... v. polysaccharide alone)
1. response type
2. memory cell response?
3. relative duration of immunity
4. immunogenicity in infancy
1. B and T (v B only)
2. yes (v. no)
3. long (v. short)
4. yes (v. no)
Mechanism of liver injury in a HbsAg pt.
presence of HbsAg on cell surface stimulates host's Tc CD8+ lymphocytes to destroy infected hepatocytes
Relative Risk Reduction = ?
RRR = (absolute risk of control - absolute risk of treatment) / absolute risk of control
Cardiac tissue conduction velocity - rate fastest to slowest:
Atrial muscle, ventricular system, purkinje system, AV ode
Fast --> Park AT VENTure AVenue --> slow
Purkinje, ATrial muscle, VENTricular system, AV node
Chr21 Chr14, Chr 1 - what do each of these indicate for alzheimer?
What does ApoE4 indicate?
Early onset ALZ
Chr21 - amyloid precursor protein
Chr 14 - presenilin 1
Chr 1 - Presenilin 2
-stab to left sternal border at 4th ICS
-stab to back to immediate right of vertebra
--stab to L 4th ICS in midclavicular line (through left lung)
-penetrating wound to 2nd ICS at LSB
stab to left sternal border - RV - anterior surface of the heart
stab to back to immediate right of vertebra - IVC
stab to L 4th ICS in midclavicular line - LV (left lateral aspect of heart)
stab to 2nd ICS and LSB - pulmonary trunk
in study results, what error is a FP (falsely concludes there is a difference?)
type 1 alpha error
in study results, what error is a FN (falsely concludes there is no difference)?
type 2 beta error
does type 1 or type 2 error relate more to sample size?
type 2 directly relates to sample size
Isoproterenol effects what receptors?
B1 and B2
Long lower extremities, small firm testes, bilateral gynecomastia.
Levels of LH, FSH, inhibin, serum testosterone, and sperm
Kleinfelter - 47 XXY
LH - increased (feedback from leydig damage)
FSH is increased (feedback from sertoli damage)
Inhibin decreased (sertoli damage)
Testosterone - decreased (leydig damage)
Sperm - none
group of subjects selected and exposure status is determined and followed for a period of time and observed for developemnt of the outcome
selection of patients with a disease (cases) and without disease (controls) and determine previous exposure status
case control study
prevalence study. simultaneous measurement of exposure and outcome.
cross sectional study
Each group uses what GLUT receptors and when type of kinetics?
-Skeletal muscle and adipocytes
-Brain, RBC, Liver, Kidney, B-cells
GLUT 4 - muscle cells and adipocytes. insulin dependent
GLUT 1, 2, 3, 5 - not insulin dependent, steady rate into cells (RBC, brain are GLUT-1 = 0 order) ( Lover, kidney, beta cells are GLUT 2 = 1st ordeR)
first order or zero order kietics?
1. enzyme limits velocity - constant amount
2. substrat limits velolcity - constant percent
zero order (RBC, brain GLUT-1)
first order (Liver, kidney, beta0cell - GLUT-2)
tx for narcolepsy
amphetamine or stimulant like modafinil
what is a promoter region that binds transcription factors and RNA polymerase 2 during initiation of transcription?
located 25 bases upstream on coding region.
ATG (Start codon) is located in what region?
cut through these for what procedure:
2. superficial cervical fascia (including subcutaneous fat and platysma muscle)
3. investing and pretracheal layers of deep cervical fascia
4. cricothyroid membrane
Primary adrenal insufficiency. Name the serum:
H increased = non-anion gap elevated metabolic acidosis