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Flashcards in UWorld Day Seven Deck (23):
1

Effect flulorinated inhaled anesthetics have on:
-CV
-REspiratory
-Brain blood flow
-GFR, renal vascualr resistance, renal plasma flow
-hepatic flow

CV - myocardial depression (dec CO, AV/Vent proessure)
REsp - respiratory depressants (decr TV, minute ventilation, hypercapnia)
-Brain - decrease vascualr resistance and increase cerebral blood flow
-decreased hepatic blood flow

2

Response for Polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (i.e. Hib - N.menin-or-tetanus toxoid) .... v. polysaccharide alone)
1. response type
2. memory cell response?
3. relative duration of immunity
4. immunogenicity in infancy

1. B and T (v B only)
2. yes (v. no)
3. long (v. short)
4. yes (v. no)

3

Mechanism of liver injury in a HbsAg pt.

presence of HbsAg on cell surface stimulates host's Tc CD8+ lymphocytes to destroy infected hepatocytes

4

Relative Risk Reduction = ?

RRR = (absolute risk of control - absolute risk of treatment) / absolute risk of control

5

Cardiac tissue conduction velocity - rate fastest to slowest:

Atrial muscle, ventricular system, purkinje system, AV ode

Fast --> Park AT VENTure AVenue --> slow

Purkinje, ATrial muscle, VENTricular system, AV node

6

Chr21 Chr14, Chr 1 - what do each of these indicate for alzheimer?

What does ApoE4 indicate?

Early onset ALZ
Chr21 - amyloid precursor protein
Chr 14 - presenilin 1
Chr 1 - Presenilin 2

Late onset

7

Heart anatomically:
-stab to left sternal border at 4th ICS
-stab to back to immediate right of vertebra
--stab to L 4th ICS in midclavicular line (through left lung)
-penetrating wound to 2nd ICS at LSB

stab to left sternal border - RV - anterior surface of the heart

stab to back to immediate right of vertebra - IVC

stab to L 4th ICS in midclavicular line - LV (left lateral aspect of heart)

stab to 2nd ICS and LSB - pulmonary trunk

8

in study results, what error is a FP (falsely concludes there is a difference?)

type 1 alpha error

9

in study results, what error is a FN (falsely concludes there is no difference)?

type 2 beta error

10

does type 1 or type 2 error relate more to sample size?

type 2 directly relates to sample size

11

Isoproterenol effects what receptors?

B1 and B2

12

Long lower extremities, small firm testes, bilateral gynecomastia.

Dx?

Levels of LH, FSH, inhibin, serum testosterone, and sperm

Kleinfelter - 47 XXY

LH - increased (feedback from leydig damage)

FSH is increased (feedback from sertoli damage)

Inhibin decreased (sertoli damage)

Testosterone - decreased (leydig damage)

Sperm - none

13

group of subjects selected and exposure status is determined and followed for a period of time and observed for developemnt of the outcome

cohort study

14

selection of patients with a disease (cases) and without disease (controls) and determine previous exposure status

case control study

15

prevalence study. simultaneous measurement of exposure and outcome.

cross sectional study

16

Each group uses what GLUT receptors and when type of kinetics?
-Skeletal muscle and adipocytes

-Brain, RBC, Liver, Kidney, B-cells



GLUT 4 - muscle cells and adipocytes. insulin dependent

GLUT 1, 2, 3, 5 - not insulin dependent, steady rate into cells (RBC, brain are GLUT-1 = 0 order) ( Lover, kidney, beta cells are GLUT 2 = 1st ordeR)

17

first order or zero order kietics?
1. enzyme limits velocity - constant amount
2. substrat limits velolcity - constant percent


zero order (RBC, brain GLUT-1)
first order (Liver, kidney, beta0cell - GLUT-2)

18

tx for narcolepsy

amphetamine or stimulant like modafinil

19

what is a promoter region that binds transcription factors and RNA polymerase 2 during initiation of transcription?

located 25 bases upstream on coding region.

TATA

20

ATG (Start codon) is located in what region?

exon 1

21

cut through these for what procedure:
1. skin
2. superficial cervical fascia (including subcutaneous fat and platysma muscle)
3. investing and pretracheal layers of deep cervical fascia
4. cricothyroid membrane

cricothyrotomy

22

Primary adrenal insufficiency. Name the serum:
-Na levels
-K levels
-H levels
-bicarbonate
-Chloride

Na decreased
K increased
H increased = non-anion gap elevated metabolic acidosis
bicarbonate low
chloride increased

23

gamma globin in what Hb type

HbF