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Flashcards in Pediatric lower respiratory conditions Deck (27)
1

definition: pneumonia

inflammation or infection of the lungs - most specifically the gas exchange units (terminal and respiratory bronchioles, and interstitium)

2

what type of organism accounts for most of the LRTIs in children under 1 year of age?

virus

3

what is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia throughout all of childhood?

strep pneumo

4

where do most bacterial pneumonias arise?

bacteria colonizing the respiratory tract

5

what is the most sensitive and specific sign of pneumonia in infants?

tachypnea

6

if an infant does not have tachypnea, does s/he have pneumonia?

no

7

what are the clinical findings of pediatric pneumonia?

fever
cough
tachypnea

refusal to eat
grunting
rales
rhonchi
decreased breath sounds
cyanosis
pallor
accessory muscle respiration

8

what is the causative organism of pertussis?

gram negative pleomorphic bordetella pertussis

9

what are the phases of pertussis?

catarrhal
paroxysmal
convalescent

10

symptoms: catarrhal phase of pertussis

1-2 weeks
rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, mild cough, wheezing, low grade fever

11

symptoms: paroxysmal phase of pertussis

2-4 weeks
coughing increases in frequency and intensity
whoop may be heard
POST TUSSIVE EMESIS

12

symptoms: convalescent phase of pertussis

1-2 weeks
coughing and vomiting decrease in frequency
cough may continue for weeks

13

what is the agent of choice for treatment of pertussis?

erythromycin

14

diagnosis: pertussis (blood work, imaging)

leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis during catarrhal and paroxysmal stages

CXR may show perihilar infiltrates, atelectasis or emphysema

15

febrile seizures in children can be linked to what infection?

influenza

16

reye syndrome is usually associated with which two viruses?

varicella
infleunza

17

diagnosis: reye syndrome

hypoglycemia
hyperammonemia
elevated liver enzymes

18

what is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1?

RSV

19

imaging: RSV

right upper lobe atelectasis
air trapping
increased interstitial markings

20

symptoms: chlamydia trachomatis

non-wheezing
non-febrile
cough
age 1-3 months

21

conjunctivitis
pneumonia
under 4 months of age

what should be in the ddx?

chlamydia trachomatis

22

what is seen on CBC for chlamydia trachomatis?

WBC normal but with peripheral eosinophilia

23

if there is evidence of chlamydial conjunctivits even without current evidence of pneumonia you would not treat with topical erythromycin but....

oral erythromycin

24

organism characteristics: strep pneumo

gram positive diplococci

25

"round" pneumonia is usually due to what organism?

strep pneumo

26

what are the agents of choice for strep pneumo pneumonia if the child is hypoxemic, in respiratory distress, or hemodynamically unstable?

if the patient is stable?

IV abx

oral abx

27

what agents are the treatment of choice for mycoplasma (walking) pneumonia?

macrolide abx