Flashcards in Pediatric lower respiratory conditions Deck (27)
inflammation or infection of the lungs - most specifically the gas exchange units (terminal and respiratory bronchioles, and interstitium)
what type of organism accounts for most of the LRTIs in children under 1 year of age?
what is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia throughout all of childhood?
where do most bacterial pneumonias arise?
bacteria colonizing the respiratory tract
what is the most sensitive and specific sign of pneumonia in infants?
if an infant does not have tachypnea, does s/he have pneumonia?
what are the clinical findings of pediatric pneumonia?
refusal to eat
decreased breath sounds
accessory muscle respiration
what is the causative organism of pertussis?
gram negative pleomorphic bordetella pertussis
what are the phases of pertussis?
symptoms: catarrhal phase of pertussis
rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, mild cough, wheezing, low grade fever
symptoms: paroxysmal phase of pertussis
coughing increases in frequency and intensity
whoop may be heard
POST TUSSIVE EMESIS
symptoms: convalescent phase of pertussis
coughing and vomiting decrease in frequency
cough may continue for weeks
what is the agent of choice for treatment of pertussis?
diagnosis: pertussis (blood work, imaging)
leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis during catarrhal and paroxysmal stages
CXR may show perihilar infiltrates, atelectasis or emphysema
febrile seizures in children can be linked to what infection?
reye syndrome is usually associated with which two viruses?
diagnosis: reye syndrome
elevated liver enzymes
what is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1?
right upper lobe atelectasis
increased interstitial markings
symptoms: chlamydia trachomatis
age 1-3 months
under 4 months of age
what should be in the ddx?
what is seen on CBC for chlamydia trachomatis?
WBC normal but with peripheral eosinophilia
if there is evidence of chlamydial conjunctivits even without current evidence of pneumonia you would not treat with topical erythromycin but....
organism characteristics: strep pneumo
gram positive diplococci
"round" pneumonia is usually due to what organism?
what are the agents of choice for strep pneumo pneumonia if the child is hypoxemic, in respiratory distress, or hemodynamically unstable?
if the patient is stable?