Flashcards in Respiratory anatomy and histology Deck (39)
what are the three lines used to demarcate the topography of the lungs?
what are the locations of adhesion for the lung and visceral pleura?
midclavicular - rib 6
midaxillary - rib 8
paravertebral - rib 10
what are the locations of adhesion for the parietal pleura?
midclavicular - rib 8
midaxillary - rib 10
paravertebral - rib 12
what is the best access for removal of pleural effusion fluid?
posterior 7th / 8th / 9th intercostal spaces
what is the superior pulmonary sulcus? what is the clinical relevance?
posterior concave curvature / region of thoracic wall
pancoast tumor can migrate superiorly to this sulcus
which type of tumor can migrate superiorly to the superior pulmonary sulcus?
what are the involved structures in a pancoast tumor?
what is the brachial plexus manifestation of a pancoast tumor?
intrinsic hand muscle deficits due to C8/T1 involvement
what are the stellate ganglion manifestations of a pancoast tumor?
horner syndrome (ptosis, myosis, anhydrosis)
the lingula is associated with which lobe / region?
superior lobe of left lung
how many bronchopulmonary segments does the right lung have?
how many bronchopulmonary segments does the left lung have?
what is the relationship of the pulmonary artery to the bronchi in the right lung?
what is the relationship of the pulmonary artery to the bronchi in the left lung?
at which thoracic level does the trachea bifurcate?
T4 / T5
the trachea begins at what vertebral level?
what do segmental (tertiary) bronchi supply on the right and left sides?
right - 10 bronchopulmonary segments
left - 8 bronchopulmonary segments
what are the four components of the respiratory airways?
the lamina propria of the vocal contains what structures?
what is Reinke's space?
histological space contained in the lamina propria of the vocal fold adjacent to the vocal ligament
what is the purpose of Reinke's space?
fluid accumulation above and below (Reinke's edema)
what constitutes the epithelium on the inner aspect of the larynx?
ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells
what constitutes the epithelium on vocal folds, anterior surface of epiglottis, and external laryngeal surfaces?
non-keratinized stratified squamous
what cell types are the drivers of mucociliary clearance?
ciliated columnar cells
goblet cells span what regions of the respiratory tract?
trachea to primary bronchioles
what are the neuroendocrine cells of Kulchitsky?
numerous in fetal lung - proliferate in certain diseases of pulmonary system
where are smooth muscle bundles found in the respiratory tract?
interface of lamina propria and submucosa of intrapulmonary bronchi
the glands in the submucosa of the intrapulmonary bronchus secrete what substances?
a1-antitrypsin and other protease inhibitors
75% of lung cancers originate in what bronchi?
1st, 2nd, and 3rd order bronchi
what are the histologic changes seen in asthma?
increased thickness of basal lamina
increased thickness of lamina propria due to edema and emigration of inflammatory cells
increased thickness of muscularis
increased glands in submucosa
what are the histological features of bronchioles?
goblet cells normally in large bronchiole
prominent muscle layer
where are club cells seen?
terminal and respiratory bronchioles
what is the function of club cells?
represent stem cell population
which pneumocyte makes up over 90% of the surface area?
what are the functions of type I pneumocytes?
facilitate gas diffusion between blood and alveoli
which pneumocyte secretes surfactant?
what are the functions of type II pneumocytes?
where are alveolar macrophages seen?