Respiratory anatomy and histology Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Respiratory > Respiratory anatomy and histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory anatomy and histology Deck (39)
1

what are the three lines used to demarcate the topography of the lungs?

midclavicular
midaxillary
paravertebral

2

what are the locations of adhesion for the lung and visceral pleura?

midclavicular - rib 6
midaxillary - rib 8
paravertebral - rib 10

3

what are the locations of adhesion for the parietal pleura?

midclavicular - rib 8
midaxillary - rib 10
paravertebral - rib 12

4

what is the best access for removal of pleural effusion fluid?

posterior 7th / 8th / 9th intercostal spaces

5

what is the superior pulmonary sulcus? what is the clinical relevance?

posterior concave curvature / region of thoracic wall

pancoast tumor can migrate superiorly to this sulcus

6

which type of tumor can migrate superiorly to the superior pulmonary sulcus?

pancoast tumor

7

what are the involved structures in a pancoast tumor?

sympathetics
brachial plexus
subclavian vessels

8

what is the brachial plexus manifestation of a pancoast tumor?

intrinsic hand muscle deficits due to C8/T1 involvement

9

what are the stellate ganglion manifestations of a pancoast tumor?

horner syndrome (ptosis, myosis, anhydrosis)

10

the lingula is associated with which lobe / region?

superior lobe of left lung

11

how many bronchopulmonary segments does the right lung have?

10

12

how many bronchopulmonary segments does the left lung have?

8-10

13

what is the relationship of the pulmonary artery to the bronchi in the right lung?

anterior

14

what is the relationship of the pulmonary artery to the bronchi in the left lung?

superior

15

at which thoracic level does the trachea bifurcate?

T4 / T5

16

the trachea begins at what vertebral level?

C6

17

what do segmental (tertiary) bronchi supply on the right and left sides?

right - 10 bronchopulmonary segments
left - 8 bronchopulmonary segments

18

what are the four components of the respiratory airways?

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

19

the lamina propria of the vocal contains what structures?

vocal ligament
Reinke's space

20

what is Reinke's space?

histological space contained in the lamina propria of the vocal fold adjacent to the vocal ligament

21

what is the purpose of Reinke's space?

fluid accumulation above and below (Reinke's edema)

22

what constitutes the epithelium on the inner aspect of the larynx?

ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells

23

what constitutes the epithelium on vocal folds, anterior surface of epiglottis, and external laryngeal surfaces?

non-keratinized stratified squamous

24

what cell types are the drivers of mucociliary clearance?

ciliated columnar cells

25

goblet cells span what regions of the respiratory tract?

trachea to primary bronchioles

26

what are the neuroendocrine cells of Kulchitsky?

numerous in fetal lung - proliferate in certain diseases of pulmonary system

27

where are smooth muscle bundles found in the respiratory tract?

interface of lamina propria and submucosa of intrapulmonary bronchi

28

the glands in the submucosa of the intrapulmonary bronchus secrete what substances?

mucins
lactoferrin
lysozyme
IgA
a1-antitrypsin and other protease inhibitors

29

75% of lung cancers originate in what bronchi?

1st, 2nd, and 3rd order bronchi

30

what are the histologic changes seen in asthma?

increased mucus
increased thickness of basal lamina
increased thickness of lamina propria due to edema and emigration of inflammatory cells
increased thickness of muscularis
increased glands in submucosa

31

what are the histological features of bronchioles?

lack cartilage
lack submucosa
goblet cells normally in large bronchiole
prominent muscle layer

32

where are club cells seen?

terminal and respiratory bronchioles

33

what is the function of club cells?

represent stem cell population
secrete surfactant

34

which pneumocyte makes up over 90% of the surface area?

type I

35

what are the functions of type I pneumocytes?

facilitate gas diffusion between blood and alveoli

36

which pneumocyte secretes surfactant?

type II

37

what are the functions of type II pneumocytes?

secrete surfactant
cell division

38

where are alveolar macrophages seen?

alveolar lumen

39

what forms the blood gas barrier?

type I pneumocytes with adluminal surfactant
fused basal laminae of type I pneumocyte and continuous capillary