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Year 2 Respiratory > Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma Deck (18)
1

asthma cardinal symptoms

cough
dyspnea
wheezing

2

asthma risk factors

atopy
indoor allergen exposures
rhinitis (chronic)
occupational
pollution
respiratory infections
active or passive smoke exposure
obesity
early menarche
maternal age
medications

3

what types of medications are associated with asthma?

beta blockers (non selective)
NSAIDs (aspirin)

4

what is the common denominator and primary physiologic finding in asthma?

airway obstruction

5

what is the cause of airway obstruction in asthma? the degree of severity depends on what?

inflammation and cellular infiltration

degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness

6

the inflammation seen in asthma has what three identifiable components?

1. infiltration of airway with eosinophils and lymphocytes
2. upregulation of normal cells to proinflammatory state
3. alterations in non cellular components of airway wall

7

what are the four main inflammatory mediators of asthma pathogenesis?

histamine
leukotrienes
kallikrein
platelet activation factor

8

what are the four components of airway obstruction?

inflammation
smooth muscle contraction and hypertrophy
mucus gland hypersecretion and mucus plugging
airway remodeling

9

are infection related asthma attacks usually bacterial or viral?

viral

10

what are the specific diagnostic tests indicating asthma?

bronchoprovocation
pre and post bronchodilator spirometry
serial peak flow measurements

11

what are the pitfalls of provocation testing?

false positive may follow recent infection
false negative may occur if patient is tested while on medication
presence of bronchial hyperreactivity alone is NOT diagnostic of asthma

12

what is the relationship of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity?

everyone with asthma has bronchial hyperreactivity, but not everyone with bronchial hyperreactivity has asthma

13

what are the criteria for classification of asthma severity?

days with symptoms
nocturnal symptoms
peak flow rates
peak expiratory flow rate variability

14

what is the treatment for patients with intermittent asthma only (less than 2 episodes weekly)?

PRN rapid acting beta agonist only

15

COPD patients are typically treated with what medication class?

anticholinergics

16

what medication should NEVER be used as a monotherapy for asthma?

long acting beta agonists

17

if a patient has more than intermittent asthma what must be added to the treatment regimen?

inhaled corticosteroid

18

what is the indication for prednisone in the context of asthma?

exacerbation in outpatient / ER setting