Pediatric Orthopedics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pediatric Orthopedics Deck (43):
1

Head leans to one side, chin rotates to the other side ear to the ground, eyes to the sky

Torticollis

2

Tx for congenital torticollis

stretching of SCM. rarely needs surgical release

3

Talus plantar flexed. Heel cord tight. Fore foot adducted/supinated

clubfoot (Talipes equinovarus)

4

Tx for clubfoot (talipes equinovarus) that involves casting and percutaneous heel cord lengthening

Ponseti method

5

Loss of normal femoral head-acetabular relationship/stability. Caused by ligamentous laxity, hormonal and familial factors
Breech position and congenital deformities

congenital hip dysplasia

6

Test where hip is reduced but can be dislocated

Barlow

7

Test where hip is dislocated but can be reduced

Ortolani

8

Conservative Tx of congenital hip dysplasia

If hip can be reduced, harness or pillow first 6 months of age. If hip will not stay in, reduce under anesthesia, hold with spica cast.

9

Orthopedic hip emergency

septic arthritis of hip

10

most common organism to cause septic arthritis of hip

s. aureus

11

Sx include: fever, acutely ill. hip flexed and externally rotated pain with attempted motion

septic arthritis of the hip

12

When does normal arch develop in foot?

age 4

13

age that genu varum (bow legs) corrects

age 4

14

damage to epiphysis that may need bracing or surgery and causes bow legs

blount's disease

15

at what age would you need surgery for marked genu valgum (knock knees) if it hasn't corrected

age 11

16

radial head subluxation caused by sudden pull on extended, pronated arm. painful elbow held flexed/pronated. will not allow supination

nursemaid's elbow

17

tx for nursemaid's elbow

Gently flex, supinate and press on radial head to reduce

18

Most common pediatric fracture

clavicular

19

Heel pain associated with overuse. Late childhood. Diagnosed with squeeze test

CALCANEAL APOPHYSITIS

20

tx for calcaneal epophysitis

rest, heel pad, achilles' stretching

21

Loss of blood supply to femoral head. Head can collapse and subluxate. Eventually revascularizes but may not occur until fixed deformity present

Perthes disease

22

Males 6-8 yrs. Variable hip/knee sx (limp). Limited internal rotation and adduction of the hip

Perthes Disease

23

Most common cause of hip (groin) pain in adolescents

SLIPPED CAPITAL FEMORAL EPIPHYSIS (SCFE)

24

Metaphysis slides superior and head stays in socket. Most patients above 95th percentile for weight

SLIPPED CAPITAL FEMORAL EPIPHYSIS (SCFE)

25

Tx for SLIPPED CAPITAL FEMORAL EPIPHYSIS (SCFE)

surgical (pinning in situ)

26

Iliotibial band slipping over the great trochanter.

snapping hip

27

Tx for snapping hip

lateral hip stretching

28

Location of overuse injuries in kids vs adults

Adults – musculo-tendinous junction. Children – bone tendon junction

29

Most common overuse injury in kids

PATELLO-FEMORAL ARTHRALGIA (PFA)

30

Sx include: sore kneecap, anterior discomfort, pain with stairs, can't sit with bent knee

PATELLO-FEMORAL ARTHRALGIA (PFA)

31

Inflammation where patellar tendon inserts on tibia. Leaves a lump – prominent, tender tibial tubercule. Xray may show apophysitis

Osgood Schlatter's

32

Tendinitis where patellar tendon originates. Anterior knee pain worse with jumping

jumper's knee

33

Tender lateral femoral epicondyle at 20-30 degrees of flexion. IT band tender, posterior edge. Mal-alignment internal rotation

ilio-tibial band tendinitis

34

Tx for ilio-tibial band tendinitis

rest, cortisone injections, surgery- partial release, debride bursa

35

Externally rotating on bent knee. pop and giving way. Reduce with extension

patellar dislocation

36

Medial tibial stress syndrome. Inflammation of tibial periosteum from repetitive muscle contraction. Tender along posterior medial border

Shin splints

37

What can shin splints lead to?

exertional compartment syndrome

38

Cause of most ankle injuries

inversion- anterior talo-fibular ligament

39

What finding on PE when examing a potential ankle sprain needs an xray?

posterior lateral malleolus tenderness

40

Stress fracture of pars. Repetitive hyperextension of back. Progressive low back pain with activity

spondylolysis

41

osteochondrosis of the spine ring. apophyses do not develop normally resulting in wedged vertebra. usually seen in boys. sharper, more rigid curve


Scheuermann’s disease

42

Fracture of 4th or 5th metacarpal neck. Treated with splint unless angulated more than 15 degrees

boxer's fracture

43

Presentation includes: athlete with sudden pain above groin, may have had some aching

avulsion of iliac apophysis