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Flashcards in PERIOD 1 Deck (28):
0

Amerigo Vespucci

Identified the Americas as continents, and became well known by recording their beauty

1

Cortez

Most brutal conquistador
Attacked montazuma and Aztecs; brought smallpox and gained a victory

2

Conquistadors

god gold and glory
At first claimed entirety of the new world

3

Spread and growth of conquistadors

News of silver in Mexico led to more trying their luck

4

Mestizos

Mixed race between natives/Spanish from intermarriage

5

Spanish America

Very successful
"Age of discovery" "ordinance of discovery"
Came for agricultural profit in addition to god gold and glory
Conquest era ended around 1540

6

Encomienda system

Forced labor of native Americans
Giving grants of land AND natives to individual Spaniards

Disease and brutality reduced native population led to asiento system

7

Asiento system

System which west Africans were brought in under.
Spanish payed tax to king for each slave imported

8

John Cabot

Italian sea captain who sailed under contract of English King Henry VII
Explored Newfoundland 1497
English did not follow up on his discoveries because they were preoccupied

9

Sir Walter Raleigh

Attempted to establish Roanoke in 1587 but failed

10

Giovanni da Verrazano

Hired explorer for the French, looking for a northwest passage.
Part of the motivation for French claims on America later

11

Jacques Cartier

Explored st Lawrence river extensively

Helped gain French interest in Americas

12

Samuel de Champlain

Founder of first French settlement in 1608 in Quebec off the st Lawrence river.

"father of New France"

13

Dutch claims in America

Established new Amsterdam and later New York, sailed up Hudson River.

Hired Dutch west India company to take control for economic gain

14

Spanish rigid class system

Dominated by pure blood Spaniards
Result of lack of families settling in new empire and intermarriage

15

Bartolommeo de la casas

Friend of the Indians
Spanish priest
Advocate for better treatment of Indians
Instigator of new laws of 1542

16

New laws of 1542

Ended Indian slavery, halted Indian forced labor, began to end the encomienda system
Conservative Spaniards pushed for appeal

17

Valladolid debate

Formal debate over the long winded discussion over role of Indians in Spanish colonies
Occurred 1550-51 in Valladolid Spain
Las casas vs Juan finds de sepulveda, who argued Indians were less than human, hence benefited from encomienda system.

Neither side won

Las casas established Bakst arguments on behalf of Indians

18

Treaty of Torsesillas and line of demarcation causes

Spain and Portugal had overlapping claims in new territories. They turned to the pope in Rome to settle their dispute. 1493 the pope drew the line of demarcation, granting Spain west and Portugal all to east. The line was later moved in the treaty of Torsesillas

19

Line of demarcation

Vertical north-south line on world map drawn by pope of Rome to settle Spain/Portugal land dispute. Spain got everything west, Portugal east.

20

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494 shift of line of demarcation, establishing portugals claim to Brazil, Spanish claiming rest of Americas

21

Anglican Church

Official government supported Church of England. Led by English monarch

22

Columbian exchange

Transfer of plants animals and germs from one side of Atlantic to the other for the first time. Europeans were exposed to new crops, while natives were exposed to new technology and diseases

23

horses

Changed the Great Plains Indians to a more migration based life when introduced by Europeans

24

Printing press

Aided spread of knowledge across Europe in 1459s

25

Utopia

Tomas Moore

Often Cited by new English colonies as their view of America

26

seigneurial system

System in France of institutional form of land distribution established in New France in 1627 and officially abolished in 1854. In New France, 80 per cent of the population lived in rural areas governed by this system of land distribution and occupation. In principle, the seigneur granted a piece of land to a family under a royalty system. Based on feudal system

27

Tenochtitlan

Aztec Capitol