Flashcards in PERIOD 1 Deck (28):
Identified the Americas as continents, and became well known by recording their beauty
Most brutal conquistador
Attacked montazuma and Aztecs; brought smallpox and gained a victory
god gold and glory
At first claimed entirety of the new world
Spread and growth of conquistadors
News of silver in Mexico led to more trying their luck
Mixed race between natives/Spanish from intermarriage
"Age of discovery" "ordinance of discovery"
Came for agricultural profit in addition to god gold and glory
Conquest era ended around 1540
Forced labor of native Americans
Giving grants of land AND natives to individual Spaniards
Disease and brutality reduced native population led to asiento system
System which west Africans were brought in under.
Spanish payed tax to king for each slave imported
Italian sea captain who sailed under contract of English King Henry VII
Explored Newfoundland 1497
English did not follow up on his discoveries because they were preoccupied
Sir Walter Raleigh
Attempted to establish Roanoke in 1587 but failed
Giovanni da Verrazano
Hired explorer for the French, looking for a northwest passage.
Part of the motivation for French claims on America later
Explored st Lawrence river extensively
Helped gain French interest in Americas
Samuel de Champlain
Founder of first French settlement in 1608 in Quebec off the st Lawrence river.
"father of New France"
Dutch claims in America
Established new Amsterdam and later New York, sailed up Hudson River.
Hired Dutch west India company to take control for economic gain
Spanish rigid class system
Dominated by pure blood Spaniards
Result of lack of families settling in new empire and intermarriage
Bartolommeo de la casas
Friend of the Indians
Advocate for better treatment of Indians
Instigator of new laws of 1542
New laws of 1542
Ended Indian slavery, halted Indian forced labor, began to end the encomienda system
Conservative Spaniards pushed for appeal
Formal debate over the long winded discussion over role of Indians in Spanish colonies
Occurred 1550-51 in Valladolid Spain
Las casas vs Juan finds de sepulveda, who argued Indians were less than human, hence benefited from encomienda system.
Neither side won
Las casas established Bakst arguments on behalf of Indians
Treaty of Torsesillas and line of demarcation causes
Spain and Portugal had overlapping claims in new territories. They turned to the pope in Rome to settle their dispute. 1493 the pope drew the line of demarcation, granting Spain west and Portugal all to east. The line was later moved in the treaty of Torsesillas
Line of demarcation
Vertical north-south line on world map drawn by pope of Rome to settle Spain/Portugal land dispute. Spain got everything west, Portugal east.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 shift of line of demarcation, establishing portugals claim to Brazil, Spanish claiming rest of Americas
Official government supported Church of England. Led by English monarch
Transfer of plants animals and germs from one side of Atlantic to the other for the first time. Europeans were exposed to new crops, while natives were exposed to new technology and diseases
Changed the Great Plains Indians to a more migration based life when introduced by Europeans
Aided spread of knowledge across Europe in 1459s
Often Cited by new English colonies as their view of America
System in France of institutional form of land distribution established in New France in 1627 and officially abolished in 1854. In New France, 80 per cent of the population lived in rural areas governed by this system of land distribution and occupation. In principle, the seigneur granted a piece of land to a family under a royalty system. Based on feudal system