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Flashcards in PERIOD 3 Deck (79):

French and Indian War

Also known as 7 Years War
caused by English touching French land
Most natives except Iroquois (split) sided w/ French
England wins and kicks France out of North America


Pontiac's Rebellion

in Ohio/Michigan area
natives against British
led to Proclamation Line of of 1763, preventing colonists from going past the Appalachian mountains
this angers colonists since they just fought to get that shit


End of salutary neglect

7 Yrs War over, Britain in debt
starts trying to grub money from the colonies
Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Intolerable Acts, etc.


Colonial Resistance/Unity

colonists resisted new British influence after salutary neglect
Stamp Act Congress, Committees of Correspondence, First Continental Congress


Common Sense

Thomas Paine authored this
British control is "against nature" and stupid
helpful in declaration


Declaration of Independence

list of complaints against King George III and justification for breaking free
inspired by Enlightenment (John Locke, governed consent, natural rights) and Common Sense by T-Pain


Reasons colonists won the war

familiar with the land
good military leadership (G-Wash)
strong beliefs that united people (Declaration)
French aid


Articles of Confederation

weak central gov't
no taxation
no executive branch
most power left to states
caused trade issues (different currencies)


Northwest Land Ordinance

created process for admitting new states
territory with 60k+ people could become state
slavery banned in northwest territory (FIRST BAN EVER)
east vs west struggle (east = power, west = no power)


Shay's Rebellion

angry about taxes that took away farmers' land


Influence of revolution ideas

French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, Latin American Revolution
Abigail Adams: remember the ladies
constitution writers postponed dealing with slavery



built on compromise
3/5 compromise, great compromise, slave trade
ratified after federalists promised antifeds a bill of rights would be added


Challenges to new government

Spanish controlled Mississippi (Pickney's Treaty)
Relations w/ Natives not defined in Constitution (land issues)
Washington's Farewell Address
debates over levels of power


Washington's Farewell Address

isolation from foreign affairs
no political parties
jefferson and hamilton were like "yeah whatever" and formed the republicans and federalists anyways


Republican Motherhood

women gained a few rights after war
expected to instill republican virtues into their children and create a good country
improved women's education



public education available
colleges created (Harvard, Yale, etc.)


Zengar Case

first demonstration of freedom to criticize government + freedom of press and speech


Benjamin West

self-taught painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American Revolution


John Copley

revolutionary painter


Ben Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution.
negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove


Poor Richard's Alamanac

contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. Was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.


Jonathan Edwards

the most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.


George Whitefield

One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.


Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur

a Frenchman who settled in New York territory in 1759; he wrote a book called Letters of an American Farmer that established a new standard for writing about America "What then is the American? A new man?"


Great Awakening

It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).


navigation acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.


Albany Plan of Union

first representative meeting in colonies
plan for an intercolonial government and taxation of all states for mutual benefit
never took effect


Boston Massacre

event in Boston where soldiers opened fire on colonists who were antagonizing them
crispy attack died :-(
Sam Adams got colonists pumped up by calling it a massacre and pushing propaganda


Boston Tea Party

colonists dumped tea into the harbor as a radical boycott


First Continental Congress

convention in Philly where delegates from everywhere but Georgia went to discuss the unfair treatment from Britain


Second Continental Congress

created after battles began; divided about whether or not separation from Britain was necessary


Olive Branch Petition

a peace offering sent to King George III in hopes of settling things easily; he thought it was stupid so he ignored it and this made colonists more angry


French Alliance

After Battle of Saratoga the French decided to aid America
A year later the Spanish + Dutch joined too


Treaty of Paris

ended the Revolutionary War
promised Britain would recognize America as a country
set up borders at Mississippi
allowed fishing in Canada
promised America would pay off debts promised to Britain by loyalists


Separation of Church and State

after Revolution, only 3 states still payed taxes to the church and freedoms became more open


Federalist Papers

papers written to encourage the ratification of the Constitution



someone in favor of a stronger federal government



someone in favor of a stronger state government


Democratic Republican Party

founded by Jefferson and Madison, favored state rights + strict constitution


Bill of Rights

written by Madison, first 10 amendments which provide guidelines for given freedoms


Strict vs. Loose

strict: constitution must be followed word for word and powers can't be implied
loose: constitution can be bent and interpreted differently, allowing for creation of powers


Federalist Party

Hamilton and J Adams, favored federal gov't and loose constitution


XYZ Affair

A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.


Alexander Hamilton

emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, he spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.


Pickney's Treaty

an agreement between the USA and and Spain that changed the borders of Florida to make it easier for American ships to make it to the New Orland Port


The Virginia Plan

Edmund Randolph proposed the plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a legislature of two houses with proportional representation in each house and executive and judicial branches to be chosen by the legislature.


The New Jersey Plan

The New Jersey Plan it offered a unicameral Congress with each state having one vote. Congress would sit atop the governmental hierarchy with the most power, like taxing and regulating trade. The executive and judicial branches would be separate from Congress and would not be as powerful. Larger states did not like this plan either, and believed they should receive some acknowledgement of power based on their size. A huge debate erupted that eventually led to an important compromise.


The Great Compromise

This compromise was proposed by Roger Sherman, He proposed that the Congress would have two houses. A Senate and a House of Reps. Each state would have equal representation. And they would be based on population.


Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.


3/5 Compromise

It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.


Jay Treaty

A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.


Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty

protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts; Virginia resolution said states had the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government; Kentucky resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers


Declaratory Act

enacted with repeal of stamp act, face-saving measure: asserted parliament could tax /make laws whenever


Townshend Acts

new duties for colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper. allowed search of private homes for smuggled goods w/ writ of assistance


writ of assistance

general license to search anywhere in opposed to a judge's warrant


Committees of Correspondence

practice of regularly exchanging of letters about about suspicious activities, inspired inter-colonial committees later in Virgina.


Coercive Acts 1774

Response to radicals in Boston and Mass.
- closed ports, reduced power of Mass. legislature, expanded Quartering Act, allowed royal offcials to slide for crimes.


General Thomas Gage

Commander of British troops in Boston



Colonial militia


Lexington and Concord

- First Fight of American Revolution
-Warned by Paul Revere, minutemen were prepared to face the British attack
-British lost 250 when they moved on to Concord, which was humiliating to them


Mt. Vernon Conference

George Washington hosted this at his home in VA (1785); VA, MD, PA, and DE reps agreed that problems were serious enough with the Articles to prompt further discussions at a later meeting in Annapolis, MD, where the states might be represented


Framers of Constitution

George Washington was the chairperson; Ben Franklin was the elder statesman who unified the people; the direct Framers were James Madison (director, "father of the Constitution"), Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, and John Dickinson


Commercial Compromise

allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including placing tariffs (taxes) on foreign imports, but it prohibited placing taxes on any exports


Electoral College System

delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule


Infant industries

Hamilton proposed to protect the young nation's new and developing industries by imposing high tariffs on imported goods


National bank

Hamilton proposed to create a national bank for depositing govt funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a state US currency


Tariffs; excise taxes

made raise enough revenue to pay govt debts, Hamilton got Congress to pass these on certain goods (i.e. Whiskey)


Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)

Washington believed the young nation was not strong enough to go to war and as a result, he proclaimed neutrality in the French conflict


Lexington and Concord

- First Fight of American Revolution
-Warned by Paul Revere, minutemen were prepared to face the British attack
-British lost 250 when they moved on to Concord, which was humiliating to them


Bunker Hill

The giant ass hill we all had to climb up in Boston
1000 casualties on Americans



British Loyalists that fought with the British troops



British Loyalists that fought with the British troops


Structure of Government under Articles

unicameral legislature
- each state given one vote
- 9/13 needed to pass laws
- unanimous for amendment


Effects of Independence on Society

- separation of Church and State
- more important role for women (molly Pitcher, Abigail Adams)
- developed rationalization for necessity of slavery


Annapolis Convention

1st meeting: George Washington hosted in his house to decided wtf they were going to do about the problems with the articles
- they decided to meet with everyone in Maryland
-only 5 states sent delegates to Maryland
- Madison and Hamilton were like yo lets move this bitch to Philly. Led to Philadelphia Convention (constitution)


Key Issues of Philadelphia Convention

Representation, Slavery, Trade, The Presidency, Ratification


Notable fedeealists

George W, Ben Frank, James Madison, Alex Ham


Notable antifeds

George mason, Patrick Henry, James Winthrop, John Hancock, George Clinton


John Hancock

Used wealth to aid independence
Canadite for 1st presidency