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Flashcards in PERIOD 2 Deck (86):


promotes governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.


What was salutary neglect

British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws.
Colonies left alone, allowed to develop their own self government.


What was Mercantilism

-**Colonies exited for one purpose only: to enrich the parent country.**
-one way flow of wealth toward mother country
-absence of trade with other nations
-single goal of economy to increase nation total wealth
-applied to British colonies after England Civil War ended
economic policy enacted by British to control Americas; a government should regulate trade/production to enable it to become self-sufficient.


effects of Mercantilism

Mercantilism polices (navigation acts)
smuggling (from trade restrictions)


Richard Hakluyi

Englishman who argued for establishment of colonies
- would elevate poverty and create market for English goods, provide work for the poor, and access to resources such as silver, gold, and lumber
(economic drive for establishment for colonies)


Navigation Acts

Mercantilism policy implemented between 1650 and 1673 that restricted colonial trade
- Trade in colonies could be carried/operated only on English or Colonial Built Ships
- All imports to the colonies had to past through English Ports
- Specific (Enumerated) Goods could be exported to England only (Tobacco was of note)


Effects of Navigation Acts (positive)

- New England shipbuilding prospers
- Chesapeake tobacco gains monopoly in England
- provided English Military forces to protect the colonies from French/Spanish


Effects of Navigation Acts (negative)

- limited the development of manufacturing
- forced Chesapeake farmers to accept low prices for crops
- caused colonists to pay high prices for English Goods


Causes of Salutary Neglect

50 yrs after glorious revolution, a shift in power occurred toward parliament, who were more lax in their enforcement of laws compared to the King. London officials never went to Americas, and didn't concern themselves the the colonies.


Enforcement of the Navigation Acts

British Government lacks in their enforcement.
Few exceptions:
- 1684 revoked charter of Massachusetts Bay because o f the smuggling activity


The Dominion of New England

James II's attempt at increasing royal control over the colonies by combining them into large administrative units; demolishing the pre-existing representative assemblies.
- combined NY, NJ, and others into single unit.


Sir Edmund Andros

sent from England to serve as governor of the Dominion of New England.
- levied taxes, limited town meetings, and revoked land titles
-fled New England as a women to escape angry mobs


fate of James II

Revolt against James II from attempt at asserting his royal powers.
- Replaced with William and Mary during the Glorious Revolution
- His demise inspired the toppling of the The Dominion and Sir Andros


glorious revolution

overthrow of James II in 1688 by a union of English Parliamentarians


foundation of Jamestown Colony

-Chartered by the Virginia Company under King James I
- First Permanent English Colony in America


Effects of Location on Jamestown Colony

-Swampy (outbreaks of malaria and dysentery) (poor farmland) (required mass labor)
- Hot/Humid (Long Growing Season) (Required Mass Labor)
- Located by River (Trade) (More workers) (Merchant Class)


Effects of Location on Plymouth Colony

- cold (short growing season) (low demand for labor)
- located by Massachusetts Bay (trade) (harbor workers + merchants)
- Sandy Soil (unfertilizable) (small landholdings - hard to work larger areas.) (needed more workers)


Effects of Location on New York Colony

-located at harbor (trade) (merchants)
- Hudson River (settlements spread) (diverse economy)
-on an island (easily defendable) (military support)


Bacon's Rebellion

Backwoods settlement created native conflict with Doeg Indians from land disputes (Berkeley gave the ok for colonists to settle on native lands)
- Bacon led massacres against Indians
- Berkeley accused them of rebelling against royal authority
- Bacon defeated Berkeley's forces and burned Jamestown


Effects of Bacon's Rebellion

- sharp class differences between wealthy (planters) and poor (farmers)
-colonial resistance to royal control
- led to a continuing theme of resistance


How did Bacon Die?



William Berkeley

royal governor known for brutality


Headright System

attempt of Virginia to attract immigrants (workers + families)
- offered 50 acres to each immigrant + servant
1 shilling/yr paid per head to company


Causes of Labor Shortages (Early 1600's)

- growing demand for tobacco
- high death rate from disease (DYSENTERY) food shortages, and conflict with Natives


Foundation of Chesapeake Colonies

King Charles I subdivided Virginia colony and granted control to George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a reward for his religious service to the crown


Causes of 'Act of Toleration'

Catholics emigrated to Maryland to escape persecution, but found themselves outnumbered by Protestant Farmers. (Holding majority of Maryland's assembly)
- Calvert pushed the Acts, granting religous freedom to all Christians (and called for death if you say no to Jesus)


Maryland Act of Toleration

Granted religious freedom to all Christians, and called for death of anyone who rejected Jesus


Church of England

aka Anglican Church


People who came to Plymouth

2 Groups:
-Separatists that left England for Holland, then came to America for religious Freedom and to establish a Church separate from royal control (Pilgrims)
- Economically driven people


Mayflower Compact

early example of self government signed by the Pilgrims of the Mayflower united them under one rule


Hardships of Plymouth

1/2 died in 1st Winter, then helped by Indians


Captain Miles Standish/Governor William Bradford

strong leaders of Plymouth colony


People Who Founded Massachusetts Bay Colony

Puritans who believed the Church of England could be reformed. Came for religious freedom under a royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company


Great Migration 1630

1,000 Puritans led by John Winthrop sailed for Mass. and founded Boston. 15,000 more Puritans followed after a civil war in England


House of Burgesses

Virginia's colonist first representative assembly 12 years after Jamestown
encouraged colonists to have same rights as Englishmen


Representative Government in Mass. Bay

male members of Puritan Church could participate in yearly elections of the colony Governor, his assistants, and a representative assembly


Roger William's Beliefs

-individual's conscience was beyond the control of any civil or church authority
- conflicted with other Puritan leaders
- Led to his banishment from the Bay colony


Foundation of Providence

Founded by Roger Williams
- recognized rights of American Indians
- allowed Catholics, Quakers, and Jews to worship freely
- first Baptist church in America


Anne Hutchinson's Beliefs

- antinomianism (faith alone can achieve salvation)
- Banished from Bay colony for questioned doctrines


Foundation of Portsmouth

Founded by Anne Hutchinson (w/ a group of followers)
after banishment


Foundation of Rhode Island

1644 Williams granted charter from Parliament to join Providence and Portsmouth together
- served as a refuge for many


what is a charter?

a written grant by a country's legislative or sovereign power, by which an institution such as a company, college, or city is created and its rights and privileges defined.


Thomas Hooker

Reverend founded Hartford + drew up first written constitution "Fund. Orders of Connecticut"


Fund. Orders of Connecticut

1639 first written constitution in America
- established representative government with elected legislature by popular vote, and government elected by said legislature.
- basis for future representatives
- First Democracy


royal charter of Connecticut

Granted limited degree of Self Government


New England Confederation 1640s

military alliance formed within 4 colonies in response to Indian + foreign attacks (while England was busy)
- established a precedent for colonies taking unified action toward common purpose


King Phillip's War

Badass Metacom united a bunch of dirty Indians to attack the gross white people


Halfway Covenant 1660's

offered by some clergy in Puritan colonies of New England, people could become partial church members even if they did not feel a conversion
- rejected by some ministers
- ultimately Strict Puritan Practices relaxed to maintain church membership



period in English History. restoration of an English Monarch, Charles II following Puritan rule under Cromwell in 1660


Foundation of the Carolinas

Charles II granted huge piece of land to 8 nobles which formed into royal colonies



Religious Society of Friends, believed in equality of all men and women, nonviolence, exc. fucking Buddhists.
- persecuted and jailed in England for their beliefs


William Penn

Quaker. Founded Pennsylvania, a haven for Quakers


The Holy Experiment

Penn wanted his colony to provide a religious refuge for the prosecuted, enact liberal ideas in government, and generate income and profits for himself .
- provided Frame of Government (guaranteed Representative assembly, and written constitution.)
- Charter of Liberties ( guaranteed freedom of worship and immigration


Charter of Liberties 1701

freedom of worship and immigration in PA


Triangular Trade

Royal African Company. 3 part trade from New England, to West Africa, to Middle Passage , to West Indies , to trade for sugar, to make rum.


John Cabot

Early explorer of America


Frame of Government

guaranteed Representative assembly and written constitution in PA


Sir Thomas Dale

led resistance against Powhatan, decapitated chief.


Role of African population by 1775

made up 20% of colonial population
90% lived in southern colonies as slaves


Economic relationship with England by 1760s

made up half of England's trade


Economy in New England

limited farming, no crops to trade.
small family farms
logging, shipbuilding, fishing, trading, rum distilling


Economy in Middle Colonies

export of wheat and corn
large farms with hired laborers + family
iron-making and other manufacturing


Economy in Southern Colonies

agriculture varied within the colonies
mostly small family farms with no slaves
few large plantations relying on slave labor


exports of the southern colonies

Chesapeake and North Carolina: Tobacco
Carolinas: timber, naval stores
South Carolina Georgia: indigo/rice
most plantations on river to ship exports to europe


Monetary System

colonies forced to use gold and silver to pay for British imports. (way of controlling colonial economy)
inflation prone colonial paper money issued often


Trading Centers of 18th Century

Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston


Major religion of the colonies through 18th century

various Protestant denominations


Challenges of Congregationalist Ministers

often criticized by other Protestants as domineering/ preaching an overly complex doctrine


Church of England presence in Colonies

viewed as a symbol of English control in colonies
no bishop in America, limiting church growth


The Great Awakening 1730s-1740s

movement characterized by fervent expression of religious feelings among the masses


Reverend Jonathan Edwards

expressed the Great Awakening ideas
sermon, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
argued God was rightfully angry with human sinfulness
if you were sorry you could be saved by God


George Whitefield

Jesus Woodstock


religous impact of Great Awakening

emotionalism became part of Protestant services
people began to study bible in their homes
Ministers lost some authority
divisions between churches (new lights vs old lights)
called for separation of church and state


political influence of great awakening

united people under one experience, not as separate origins or religions
caused people to challenge authority (if they could go against a higher power (god) what is stopping them from going against Britain?)


Poor Richard's Almanack

written by Ben Frank, witty advice that was best selling


First Elementary Education

Developed in Puritan New England from the emphasis on learning the bible
first tax supported schools


Education in Middle/South

Middle - schools were church sponsored/private, teachers lived with families
south- parents gave kids education they could, tutors were available for rich peeps


Causes of interest in higher education

Great Awakening prompted creation of 5 colleges betwn 1746-69



Mass. founded by Puritans to give candidates for the ministry a good theological and scholarly education.


Zenger Case

newspapers could be jailed for libel if authorities were questioned. Zenger, editor/publisher, was tried.
- argued that he printed the truth
-encouraged newspapers to take greater risks.


The Enlightenment

influenced by Locke, new found emphasis on logic, science, and reason


John Locke Ideals

Government gives people right to natural laws by being human
citizens have a right/obligation to revolt against government who fails to protect their rights


William Bradford

Gov. of Plymouth Plantation. Ended Standish's regime. Distributed land, paid off colony's debt



annual payment on land owned/sold in Carolinas (similar to headright system)


James Oglethope

Our Perpetual Dictator. founder of military Georgia as buffer from the Spanish.


Effect of John Locke Ideas

-adapted by other Enlightenment philosophers
-provide rationale for American Revolution/principles for constitution.