Pharm Pain, Martin I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm Pain, Martin I Deck (55)
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1

What are the full agonists for opioid R

morphine
fentanyl
heroin
methadone

2

what are the partial agonists for opioid R

codeine, hydrocondone, oxycodone

3

what are the mixed agonists/antagonists

buprenorphine

4

opioid antagonists

naloxone

5

what are the weak opioid antonists or reuptake inhibitors

tramadol
tapentadol

6

what are the non opioid analgesics

acetaminphen, aspirin, other NSAIDs and selective COX2 inhibitors

7

what is analgesia

attenuation of pain perception without loss of consciousness

8

how is analgeisa accomplised

raising pain threshold at level of spinal cord and altering brains perception of pain

9

sensory component of pain

perceived as result of direct stimulatino of pain R

10

reactive component of pain

intensity of pain dramatically altered by lvel of anxiety and stress response related to original insult

11

narcotic

substance producing stupor associated with analgesia

12

opiates

natural products and dervatives obtained from opium poppy
opium, morphine, heroin, codeine

13

opioids

bind to opioid R
includes agonists, antagonists, partial agonists and mixed agonists/antagonists

14

endogenous opioid agonists

endorphin enkephalin, dynorphin and others

15

where are endogenous opioid peptides made

in nucleus and transported down

16

endogenous opioid peptide precursoe

pro-opiomelanocortin POMC

17

opioid effect in peraqueductal gray

inhibit GABA release which increase inhibitory nerve activity regulating projections to medulla that alter dorsal horn excitability

18

how do opiates work on spinal cord

presynaptically to block Ca influx and NT release
or
postsynaptically to open K Ch causing hyeprpolarization

19

mu opiod R

endorphins>enkephalins>dynorphins
supraspinal and spinal analgesia
sedation
inhibition respiration
slowed GI
modulation hormone and NT release

20

kappa opioid R

enkephalins>endorphins=dynorphins
supraspinal and spinal analgesia
modulation hormone and NT release

21

delta opioid R

dynorphins>endorphins>enkephalins
supraspinal and spinal analgesia
psychomimetic effects and slowed GI transit

22

principle signal mech of opioid R

GPCR
-inhbiit cAMP
-open K Channels allowing efflux and hyperpolarization
-reduce presynaptic Ca influx inhibiting NT release

23

brainstem opiod R influence

respiration, cough, nausea, vomiting, BP, pupillary diameter, stomach secretions

24

medial thalamus opioid R mediate

deep pain that is poorly localized

25

spinal cord opioid R mediate

reciept and integration of incoming sensory
change painful afferent stimuli

26

hypothalamic opioid R

effect neuroendocrine secretion

27

limbic system opioid R

high density of opioid R in amygdala

28

periphery opioid R

inhibit Ca influx and release of excitatory glutamate and pro inflammatory substanc eP

29

immune cell opioid R

function unknown

30

which opioid R is responsible for majoirty classical effects of opiods

mu R
analgesia, euphoria, miosis, resp depression, physio dependence, reduced GI motility (constipation)