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cathy's COMPS/Praxis > Phonetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phonetics Deck (30):
1

phonemes

smallest units of sound that can affect meaning

2

allophones

variations of phonemes that do NOT affect meaning

3

syllable

smallest phonetic unit

4

3 parts of a syllable

onset, nucleus and coda (rhyme)

5

cognate pairs

place and manner same, voicing different
/p, b/ and /k, g/

6

how are vowels produced?

open vocal tract
from VF's to lips; no points of constriction

7

why are all vowels voiced?

source is the vocal folds

8

what are diphthongs?

slow gliding movement from one vowel to another (from onglide to offglide)

9

what are suprasegmentals?

features of prosody that add meaning/variety to speech

10

the # of times a cycle of vibrations repeats itself within a second is called what?

frequency (of vibration)

11

a tone that contains a single frequency is what kind of tone?

pure tone

12

simple harmonic motion is a tone of _____

single frequency that repeats itself

13

a complex tone is when ______; can be what?

2 or more tones of differing frequencies are combined;
periodic or aperiodic

14

what is the amount of molecular displacement per unit of time?

velocity
changes in this = acceleration or deceleration

15

what is frequency?

number of cycles per second, in hertz

16

what is period?

time for a cycle to be completed

17

variations in f of vibration create variations in sensation called what?

pitch

18

amplitude is the measure of what?

intensity of sound

19

spectrogram displays what?

frequency over time and intensity

20

what is the fundamental frequency (ff)?

lowest frequency of a periodic wave aka first harmonic

21

generally, F1 varies as a result of what?

tongue HEIGHT

22

generally, F2 varies as a result of what?

tongue ADVANCEMENT

23

average ff's of adult male, female, and CH

male: 125Hz;
female: 225Hz;
CH: 425Hz

24

amplitude is measured in what?

dB

25

frequency is measured in what?

Hz

26

pitch is measured in what?

mels

27

period is measured in what?

ms

28

sound travels through air at approximately what 2 measures? (meters and feet)

344 meters per second or 1130 feet per second

29

jitter vs shimmer

jitter: FREQUENCY abnormalities;
shimmer: AMPLITUDE abnormalities

30

systems of language vs speech production systems

systems of language: phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, prosody, pragmatics;
speech production systems: respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, prosody