Flashcards in Voice Deck (65):
what is the opening between VF's called?
primary CN innervates larynx
other 2 nerves that innervate larynx
superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve
what is maximum phonation time (MPT)?
client's ability to sustain "ah"
perceptual correlate of frequency is ____
perceptual correlate of intensity is ____
pitch is determined by ____, ____, and ____ of VF's
mass, tension, elasticity
frequency perturbation or ______: variations in vocal ______
patients with voice problems such as ______ or ______ might show jitter
disturbances/movement in air particles is called ______
amplitude or ______: cycle-to-cycle variation in vocal ______
vocal quality: combo of breathiness and harshness from irregular VF vibrations
vocal quality: rough, unpleasant, "gravelly" sounding
harsh voice associated with muscular ____ and ____
vocal quality: VF's slightly open, soft, with little variation in loudness
vocal quality: VF's vibrate very slowly; voice: "crackly"
vocal quality: shrill, unpleasant, high pitched, and "tinny"
amount of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing cycle
volume of air exhaled after max inhalation
total lung capacity
total volume of air in lungs
backward retraction of tongue; oral cavity closed at back and open in front- blocking sound waves from larynx because back is blocked
supraglottic vs. glottic. vs. subglottic
above VF's, at level of VF's, below VF's
inflammatory vascular lesion on arytenoids; posterior; assoc with contact ulcers
soft, pliable, filled with blood
precancerous benign growths of thick, whitish patches
rough, pinkish lesion
narrowing of subglottic space
wart-like growths from HPV
membrane that grows across anterior portion of glottis
bilateral and symmetrical; anterior; small blister-like swellings; red/pink; inability to sing high
SOFTER masses; filled with fluid; unilateral
ulcerated, granulated tissue; posterior third of glottal margin
larynx: biological valve at top of trachea. it helps to do what?
close entry to trachea so food/liquid/particles don't enter lungs
larynx also builds what?
swelling of VF's
decreased vocal pitch (so more easily found in women)
smoking, GER, and vocal abuse causes it
can cause SOB if large enough
so quit smoking and treat GER
decreased/insufficient intraoral breath pressure
intrinsic muscles control what 3 things?
pitch, loudness, quality
primary function of extrinsic muscles are what 2 things?
support larynx and fix it in position
how many sets of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles?
1 set of intrinsic, 2 sets of extrinsic: suprahyoids and infrahyoids
extrinsic muscles: suprahyoids (elevate larynx)
Dig My Style Genie
(digastricus, mylohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid)
extrinsic muscles: infrahyoids (pull larynx down)
(thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid)
5 intrinsic muscles (CT ILP)
cricothyroid (tenses VF's)
thyroarytenoid (sound production)
interarytenoid (adducts VF's)
lateral cricoarytenoid (adducts VF's)
posterior cricoarytenoid (abducts VF's)
on what sounds is hypernasality found?
vowels, because of VPI
on what sounds is hyponasality found?
consonants, because of nasal air emissions
some qualities of describing voice
hoarse, harsh, strained, breathy, glottal fry, diplophonia, stridency
if disease is unilateral, this means voice will be what? and why? 1 example
diplophonia because one fold is vibrating at different rate than the other
name 4 voice disorders caused by vocal abuse
nodules, polyps, contact ulcers, reinke's edema
perceptual evaluation consists of 5 things (looking at 5 different things)
2 instrumental evaluations of voice pathologies
endoscopy: rigid (mouth) or flexible (nasal): structures
videostroboscopy: function by slowing down VF's
general treatments for voice disorders
education (increase awareness and better habits)
vocal hygiene, vocal rest, voice tx
chromosome 15 is duplicated from father or deleted from mother
autosomal dominant mutations; syndactly and craniosynostosis
absence of short arm of 5th chromosome (5p)
cri du chat
autosomal dominant inheritance; craniosynostosis, wide set eyes, bradycephaly
extra chromosome 21
expansion of nuclei acid CGG which repeats too often on FMRI gene
autosomal recessive deficiency of X-L iduronidase
mutations in FBN1 gene
failure of development of motor nuclei of cranial nerves
autosomal recessive inheritance; micrognathia, cleft soft palate, glossoptosis (tongue: posterior)
deletion in long arm of chromosome 15
extra copy of chromosome 13
missing/deformed X chromosome
turner syndrome in females, noonan syndrome in both