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cathy's COMPS/Praxis > Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Deck (24):
1

which variable is directly manipulated by the experimenter

independent variable

2

which variable is affected by manipulation...

dependent variable

3

which is independent variable: treatment or disorder?

treatment (disorder is dependent variable as severity of disorder depends upon tx)

4

which is independent variable: awkward situation or amount of stuttering?

awkward situation (amount of stuttering is dependent variable- stutter more in awkward situation)

5

which is independent variable: clinician's modeling or client's imitation

clinician's modeling (this affects client's imitation, which is dependent upon amount of modeling)

6

this research observes phenomena of interest and records observations

descriptive research

7

this research begins with the effect of independent variables that occurred in the past

ex post facto research

8

in correlational research (relationships between variables using "relationship" and "related", not "cause" and "effect"), what is the Pearson r?

scale from -1.0 to 0 to +1.0;
number close to +1.0 = stronger and more positive the relationship
number close to -1.0 = stronger and more negative the relationship
number close to 0 = weaker the relationship

9

in this type of research, the person immerses themselves in situation being studied; try to understand phenomena as they naturally occur in an environment

ethnographic research

10

difference between interval and ratio scales

in ratio, a 0 is present (absolute point)

11

when an instrument measures what it claims to measure

validity

12

consistency with which the same event is measured repeatedly

reliability

13

when a test predicts future performance on a similar/related task.... GRE scores predictive of praxis scores

predictive/criterion validity

14

when a new test correlates with an existing test (comparing a new artic test to an already existing artic test)

concurrent validity

15

a look at all test items to ensure they adequately sample the full range of skills being tested

content validity

16

when same test given to same people twice and scores are same (positively correlated)

test-retest reliability

17

measures internal consistency of a test

split-half reliability

18

when 2 or more people agree (in measuring)

interjudge reliability

19

same observer measures same event consistently

intrajudge reliability

20

1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of group designs

advantage: strong internal validity (confounding variables are ruled out)

disadvantage: diff. to randomly draw participants

21

ABA design of single subject designs

A: baseline

B: treatment

A: treatment withdrawal

purports to show that treatment and no other variable was responsible for increase in skills

22

ABAB design of single subject designs

A: baseline

B: treatment

A: treatment withdrawal

B: treatment again

purports to show that treatment was effective because skills declined during withdrawal and increased when treatment began again

23

multiple baseline designs of single subject designs

effects of treatment are demonstrated by showing that untreated skills did not change and only treated skills did (without treatment withdrawal)

24

1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of single-subject designs

advantage: more easily replicated (no need to randomize samples, just use clients they have)

disadvantage: do not predict behavior of groups of individuals, just intensively studying individuals