Physical exam: Alkhankan Flashcards Preview

D&T 3 test 2 > Physical exam: Alkhankan > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physical exam: Alkhankan Deck (67):
1

The posterior side of the lungs, are mostly what part of the lobes

lower

2

how many segments are on each side of the lob

10

3

what part of breathing is active and which is passive

inhalation/inspiration - active
expiration/exhalation - passive

4

what muscles relax during expiration

diaphragm and expiratory muscles

5

when does barometric air pressure equal alveolar pressure

no air movement
- end of expiration

6

what are pressures during inspiration

barometric pressure greater than alveolar pressure

7

what are pressures during expiration

alveolar pressure greater than barometric pressure

8

What shifts the curve to the right

low pH
increase CO2
increase temp

9

what does a shift to the right mean

better release oxygen

10

what does a shift to the left mean

greater affinity of oxygen for RBC
increase O2 uptake

11

what causes the graph to shift left

increase pH
decrease CO2
decrease temperature

12

what defines capacity

sum of 2 or more volumes

13

tidal volume

volume of air inspired and expired during normal quiet breathing

14

Inspiratory reserve volume

max. amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration

15

expiratory reserve volume

max. amount of air that can be exhaled from the resting expiratory level

16

residual volume

volume of air remaining in lungs at the end of maximum expiration

17

vital capacity

volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after a max. inspiration

18

FVC

when vital capacity exhaled forcefully

19

SVC

when vital capacity is exhaled slowly

20

what adds up to vital capacity

IRV + TV + ERV

21

Inspiratory capacity

IC
max. amount of air that can be inhaled form the end of a tidal volume

22

formula for inspiratory capacity

= IRV + TV

23

Functional residual capacity

volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of TV expiration

24

formula for FRC

ERV + RV

25

what are the forces at FRC

- elastic force of chest wall = elastic force of lungs

26

total lung capacity

volume of air in the lungs after a max. inspiration

27

formula for TLC

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

28

dysphonia

difficulty speaking

29

epistaxis

hemorrhage from the nose

30

tell me when the lungs develope

- not fully grown at birth
- rapid growth first 2 years
- decline in growth by 8 years

31

kussmals

rapid shallow breathing

32

orthopnoea

short of breath in supine position, gets some relief by sitting or standing

33

a drug overdose could do what to you lungs

bradypnea

34

define clubbing

widening of AP and lateral diameter
angle between nail and skin is greater than 180 degress

35

when can clubbing show up

- intrathoracic malignancy
- suppurative lung disease
- diffuse interstitial fibrosis

36

which way does the tracheal alignment shift: pneumothorax

shifts toward unaffected side

37

which way does the tracheal alignment shift: pleural effusion

shifts toward unaffected side

38

which way does the tracheal alignment shift: fibrosis or atelectasis

shifts toward affected side

39

which way does the tracheal alignment shift: pulmonary consolidation

no shift

40

what can cause asymmetry of chest expansion

unilateral or plueral disease

41

in what disease state would you have bilateral comparison of vocal vibrations increased

- alveolar consolidation

42

in what disease state would you have bilateral comparison of vocal vibrations decreased

pneumothorax
pleural effusion

43

when does hyperresonance occur during percussion

COPD
pneumothorax

44

when does dullness occur during percussion

atelectasis
alveolar filling/consolidation
pleural effusion
fibrosis

45

percuss pneumothorax and emphysema

increased percussion and hyperresonance

46

percuss effusion and consolidated lung

reduced percussion
hyporesonance

47

vesicular

soft low pitched with rustling quality during inspiration and even soften during expiration

48

where is vesicular usually heard

over most of lung

49

I:E ratio for vesicular

3:1

50

Ronchi

low pitched wheezing

51

what is rhonchi associated with

rupture of fluid films
abnormal airway collapsibility
clear with coughing
asthma
COPD

52

fine crackles, when are they heard

heard at end of inspiration

53

when are coarse crackles heard

early in inspiration
- secretions are in bronchi

54

wheezes

high pitched
airway obstruction

55

what are bronchial sounds

sounds are hollow tubular and lower pitched

56

where are bronchial sounds normal

trachea

57

what is I;E ratio

1:3

58

What is stridor

musical high pitched,

59

what does stridor indicate

upper airway obstruction

60

stridor fixed lesions when biphasic indicates

coup

61

forced vital capacity

total volume of air that can be exhaled forcefully from TLC

62

FEV1

volume of air forcefully expired from full inflation TLC in first second

63

obstructive disease FEV1/FEV

DDD/D--> DD

64

restrictive disease FEV1/FEV

DD/DD--> normal

65

what is PFT for obstructive, gold standard

FEV1/FEV less than 70

66

what is PFT for restrictive, gold standard

FEV1/FEV less than 80

67

what are DLCO levels in restrictie and obstructive

restrictive: decreased
obstructive:near normal except emphysema