Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - Glacial Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) Flashcards Preview

SHHS - AQA GCSE Geography > Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - Glacial Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - Glacial Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) Deck (62)
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1
Q

Describe the extent of the ice covering the UK during the last Ice age

A

Ice covered…

  • all of Scotland
  • the North of England
  • most of Wales
  • all of Northern Ireland
2
Q

How long ago was the last ice age?

A

About 20,000 years ago

3
Q

What is a glacier?

A

A mass of ice that covers the land

4
Q

Why are glaciers important in explaining the UK’s physical landscapes?

A

As glaciers move, they erode the landscape, creating many of the UK’s physical landscapes.

5
Q

What causes a glacier to move?

A

The weight of the ice and gravity pulling it down hill.

6
Q

What is the main weathering process in a cold environment?

A

Freeze-thaw weathering

7
Q

What is freeze-thaw weathering?

A

When water gets into the cracks in a rock, it freezes, expanding to form ice. This puts pressure on the rock. As the ice thaws, it reduces in size, releasing the pressure. This repeating process causes the rock to break apart.

8
Q

When glaciers move downhill, which two erosional processes happen?

A
  1. Plucking
  2. Abrasion
9
Q

What is meant by ‘plucking’?

A

When meltwater on the bototm or sides of a glacier refreeze to surrounding rock. As the glacier moves, loose fragments of rock are pulled (‘plucked’) from the surface, leaving behind a jagged surface.

10
Q

What is ‘abrasion’?

A

Debris picked up by the glacier then scours (scrapes and scratches) the valley floor as the glacier moves over the landscape. It acts like ‘sandpaper’.

11
Q

What is ‘rotational slip’?

A

The curved movement of a glacier across a hollow in the landscape.

12
Q

What is ‘bulldozing’?

A

As a glacier moves, it pushes debris forward.

13
Q

What is ‘moraine’?

A

The accumulation of till that is deposited by the glacier

14
Q

What is ‘till’?

A

Broken rock fragments left behind by a glacier. It is comprised of angular material of different sizes (unsorted).

15
Q

When does deposition occur?

A

When ice melts

16
Q

What is ‘outwash’?

A

The finer pieces of sediment that have been broken down and rounded by attrition, that have been washed away by meltwater and deposited.

17
Q

Name the 7 landforms created by glacial erosion

A
  1. Arête
  2. Pyramidal peak
  3. Corries
  4. Truncated spurs
  5. Hanging valleys
  6. Glacial troughs
  7. Ribbon lakes
18
Q

What is an arête?

A

A narrow, steep sided ridge formed between two corries

19
Q

What is a pyramidal peak?

A

A pointed peak of a mountain caused when three corries have formed on a mountainside.

20
Q

What is a corrie?

A

Large hollowed out depressions located on the hillsides.

21
Q

What are the characteristics of a corrie?

A
  • Steep back wall
  • Raised ‘lip’ at the front
  • Sometimes contain a tarn (lake)
22
Q

What process causes a corrie?

A

Erosion. As the ice moves by rotational slip, it erodes the hollow shape into the hillside.

23
Q

What is a ‘tarn’?

A

A lake left behind when glacial ice melts in a corrie.

24
Q

What is a ‘ribbon lake’?

A

When a glacier moves, it erodes the landscape, leaving hollows in the ground. Meltwater sits in these long, thin hollows leaving behind a ‘ribbon lake’.

25
Q

What is a ‘truncated spur’?

A

Ice is unable to flow around interlocking spurs that may have formed within the valley. As a result, the glacier cuts straight through leaving behind cliff like edges on the valley sides.

26
Q

What is a ‘glacial trough’?

A

Steep sided valleys with flat bottoms. They are created when glaciers form in a valley, often turning a V-shaped valley into a U shaped trough.

27
Q

What is a ‘hanging valley’?

A

A smaller tributary valley located above the main glacial trough. They are formed by smaller glaciers that do not have the same erosive power as a glacier.

28
Q

How is a corrie formed?

A
  1. Snow accumulates in a small depression on a valley side
  2. Freeze thaw weathering causes the hollow to deepen
  3. More snow can accumulate in the deeper hollow
  4. Over time it compacts and freezes, creating a glacier
  5. Through rotational slip, the glacier moves forward, scooping out (abrades) the hollow
  6. The thinner, front of the glacier is unable to erode, thus deposits material, forming a lip.
29
Q

How is an arête formed?

A

When two corries form on a hill side, narrowing the land between them both, leaving behind a knife-edged ride (arête)

30
Q

How is a pyramidal peak formed?

A

When three corries form on a hillside, narrowing the land between them both, leaving behind three knife-edged rides (arête) which result in a pointed peak (pyramidal peak)

31
Q

Name the three glacial landforms resulting from transportation and deposition

A
  1. Erratics
  2. Drumlins
  3. Moraine
32
Q

What are ‘erratics’?

A

Sediment that is out of place. e.g. a large boulder on it’s own. The glacier has transported material to a location of a different rock type.

33
Q

What are ‘drumlins’?

A

Elongated hills made of moraine deposited by the glacier. They resemble an egg shape. The pointed end points down the valley which indicated the direction of glacial movement.

34
Q

Name the 4 types of moraine

A
  1. Ground moraine
  2. Medial moraine
  3. Lateral moraine
  4. Terminal moraine
35
Q

What is ‘ground moraine’?

A

Eroded material that has been carried underneath the glacier. It is deposited on the valley floor.

36
Q

What is ‘lateral moraine’?

A

Eroded material that has been carried along top of the glacier, to the side. It is deposited at the sides of the glacier.

37
Q

What is ‘medial moraine’?

A

It is made up of the lateral moraine of two adjoining glaciers. It forms a long ridge of deposition.

38
Q

What is ‘terminal moraine’?

A

This is found at the front (snout) of the glacier. It is deposited here when the glacier retreats.

39
Q

How would you recognise a corrie on an OS map?

A

Tightly packed contours in a U shape

40
Q

How would you recognise a pyramidal peak on an OS map?

A

Tightly packed contours that curve away from a central high point.

41
Q

How would you recognise an arête on an OS map?

A
  • Close by the a pyramidal peak/corrie/tarns - they are difficult to spot otherwise.
  • Their names are usually ‘….edge’
  • They look like a narrow hill with very close parallel contours either side of the hill.
42
Q

How would you recognise a glacial trough on an OS map?

A

There will be band of no contour lines (flat bottom valley) with a series of closely packed contours either side.

43
Q

Name a UK location that has been affected by glaciation?

A

Snowdonia, Wales

44
Q

What glacial features would you find in Snowdonia?

A
  • Arête: Y Gribin
  • Tarns: Llyn Bochlwyd, Llyn Idwal
  • Ribbon Lake: Llyn Ogwen
  • Glacial trough: Nant Ffrancon
45
Q

List the ways glaciated upland areas used for economic gain?

A
  1. Farming
  2. Forestry
  3. Quarrying
  4. Tourism
46
Q

Why are glaciated upland areas used for farming?

A
  • Typically used for animal grazing (rather than crop growing) as soils are thin and acidic
  • Cereal and potato farming is ideal in glacial valleys as the soil is much deeper and the flat land is ideal for machines
  • Till often covers glaciated areas which is very fertile - ideal for arable farming.
47
Q

Why are glaciated upland areas used for forestry?

A

Some trees are well suited to the thin, acidic soils in upland areas i.e. conifers. They are well suited to the colder conditions. They help meet the demand for timber.

48
Q

Why are glaciated upland areas used for quarrying?

A
  • Lots of the rock in glaciated areas can be useful in construction.
  • Hard rocks can be crushed and used in building.
  • Sand and gravel found in lowland glacial areas are useful in creating cement and concrete.
49
Q

Why are glaciated upland areas used for tourism?

A
  • The beautiful landscapes and scenery are appealing to tourists.
  • Many outdoor activities such as walking and mountain biking can be carried out.
  • Creates opportunities for employment.
50
Q

What conflicts have been caused by farming in glacial landscapes?

A
  • Conservationists want land to be untouched by developments
  • Tourists often walk across farming fields so farmers have taken measures to block access
51
Q

What conflicts have been caused by tourism in glacial landscapes?

A
  • Increasing tourist numbers increases the demand for infrastructure e.g. hotels, roads which ruins the natural beauty of the area
  • Tourists cause footpath erosion or damage stone walls
52
Q

What conflicts have been caused by forestry in glacial landscapes?

A
  • Removing trees planted for timber can damage habitats
  • Coniferous forests aren’t abundant in wildlife so aren’t as attractive to tourists
53
Q

What conflicts have been caused by quarrying in glacial landscapes?

A
  • Quarrying destroys the beauty of the area which deters tourists
  • Noise pollution from the trucks that carry the material to and from site annoys residents
54
Q

Outline the pros (+) and cons (-) of wind farms being set up in the Lake District

A

+ Renewable source of energy
+ Upland areas are ideal for wind power generation
+ ‘Friends of the Lake District’ group said it was good for environment and supported local businesses
- House prices can fall
- Spoil landscape
- Deters tourists who would spend money in local economy

55
Q

What is meant by ‘conservation’?

A

Preservation of an area and protecting it from harmful development.

56
Q

Name a glaciated upland area in the UK that is used for tourism

A

The Lake District

57
Q

Why is the Lake District attractive to tourists?

A
  • Physical landscape - Mountains offer opportunities for walking e.g. Scafell Pike, lakes offer opportunities for water sports e.g. Windermere, landscape offers opportunities for gorge walking, ghyll scrambling.
  • Cultural attractions - home to Beatrix Potter, inspiration to William Wordsworth, scenic monuments and castles.
58
Q

Describe the social effects (+ and -) of tourism in the Lake District

A

+ / - About 16 million tourists visit each year
- 89% of visitors arrive by car causing congestion
- local residents pay more for shopping as most shops cater for tourists who will pay higher prices
- Around 20% of properties are second homes
- Services for residents are more infrequent in throughout the year

59
Q

Describe the economic effects (+ and -) of tourism in the Lake District

A

+ Large numbers of people are employed by tourism (16,000)
+ Visitors spend approx £1 billion a year
- Many local people are priced out of the area due to high amounts of second homes driving up house prices

60
Q

Describe the environmental effects (+ and -) of tourism in the Lake District

A

- Footpath erosion from high numbers of tourists
- Large amounts of traffic pollute the environment and park on roadsides
- Boat rides and water sports cause noise pollution

61
Q

What strategies can be put in place to manage the negative effects of tourism?

A
  • Signposting to tourists to ensure they use footpaths
  • Reseed vegetation to reduce damage caused
  • Remind tourists to take litter with them by using signs in tourist hotspots
  • Encourage use of public transport (i.e. passes)
62
Q

What is being done in the Lake District to manage the effects of tourism?

A
  • More dual carriageways around the Lake District to reduce congestion
  • ‘Honister Rambler’ park-and-ride bus scheme
  • Transport Hubs at Ambleside to make public transport options available to tourists
  • Speed restrictions and speed bumps calm traffic
  • Footpath restoration programmes
  • More affordable homes built for residents
  • Reducing boat speeds to reduce noise