What is ‘energy security’?
Having a reliable, sustainable and affordable supply of energy.
Name some countries where energy consumption is high?
Name some regions where energy consumtion is low?
- South East Asia
Why is Russia energy secure?
They have large reserves of natural gas and oil
Why does the Middle East region have an energy surplus?
They have large oil reserves
Why is Western Europe energy insecure?
- Depends on imports
- Not very energy effiicient
Why is Sub-Saharan Africa energy insecure?
Reliant on TNCs to extract oil and gas
What are the factors that affect energy supply?
- Costs of exploitation and production
- Physical factors
- Political factors
What physical factors affect energy supply?
- Geology - determines what fossil fuels are under the ground
- Abundance of potential renewable energy e.g. geothermal
What political factors affect energy supply?
- Political instability
- Potential use of nuclear energy for political gain
- Some governments don’t subsidise some energy productions
Why is technology an important factor in the supply of energy?
- We can now use technolgy to access hard to reach resources
- Technology makes it cheaper to access some resources
Why is climate an important factor in the supply of energy?
Some areas have high amounts of solar energy or wind which makes wind turbines and solar panels an ideal choice.
Why is global energy consumption increasing?
- Great economic development
- More industrial development (Asia)
Why does rising population affect energy consumption?
More people means more need for heating, power, vehicle fuel etc.
What is ‘energy insecurity’?
Not having a reliable or affordable supply of energy to meet demand.
What are the impacts of energy insecurity?
- price of energy increases as fossil fuels are used up
- more environmental damage as a result of looking for more fossil fuels
- more demand for biofuels which uses land for food production
- indsutry relocates to access energy
How can a country increase its energy supply?
- Try to use its own energy sources
- Import more energy
- Reduce energy consumption through technology
Name 2 remote regions where we can now exploit energy resources?
What has made it possible to exploit resources in remote areas?
New cost effective technologies
What are the economic disadvantages of oil and gas exploitation in the Arctic?
- difficult to access therefore use of specialist equipment is expensive
- workers demand higher pay for working in a remote area
- transporting oil and gas long distances increases cost
What are the environmental disadvantages of oil and gas exploitation in the Arctic?
- Strict controls needed to prevent damage
- Transport can damage the environment
- Pollution from spills
What are ‘biofuels’?
A fuel that is made from living things e.g. plants (maize, sugar cane)
Why do biofuels cause food shortages?
They are grown on land which can’t then be used for food production
What are the negatives of biofuels?
- Uses valuable land that can be used to produce food
- Increase food prices
How does energy insecurity impact industry?
- Frequent power cuts = loss of productivity
- Closure of some industries
How can energy insecurity lead to conflict?
- Some countries own a large share of an energy resource so have power to distribute
- They may increase cost of energy
- They can cut off supplies for political gain
- Hijack of oil in transit can also be an issue
What is ‘renewable energy’?
Energy that will never run out.
What is ‘non-renewable energy’?
Energy that will eventually run out
List 7 renewable energy sources
- Wind power
- Solar energy
List some non-renewable energy sources
- Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
- Nuclear power
What is ‘biomass’?
Energy that is made from natural products i.e. animal waste, plants
What is ‘wind power’?
Generating energy from the wind by installing wind turbines on land or at sea
What is ‘solar energy’?
Energy from the sun that heats water or makes electricty by using photovoltaic cells.
What is ‘hydropower’?
Using water to generate energy. Usually using a dam to control the flow of water through turbines.
What is ‘tidal power’?
Using the changing tides to turn turbines
What is ‘wave power’?
Wind blowing over water generates waves which turns turbines
What is ‘geothermal energy’?
Using the earth’s heat to generate electricty. Water is pumped under ground, heated to create steam that turns tubines.
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of biomass
+ Good for LICs as it doesn’t require any compex technolgy and they have access to waste resources from farms
- not always reliable if not managed sustainably
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of wind power
+ do not produce harmful greenhouse gases
- dependent on weather
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of solar energy
+ can be a cheap source of energy for LICs
- electricty production using photovoltaic cells is expensive for amount of electricity generated
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of hydropower
+ produce large amounts of energy
- can destroy the environment in the set up of dams and cause people to be relocated
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of tidal power
+ no harmful greenhouse gases produced
- not a continuous supply of energy
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of wave energy
+ no harmful greenhouse gases produced
- expensive and dependent on weather conditions
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of geothermal energy
+ cheap source of energy and great in tectonically active areas
- not possible to use in all countries
What are ‘fossil fuels’?
Fuels created by decomposed dead plants and animals that have been subject to heat and pressure. They have formed over millions of years. (e.g coal, oil, gas)
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using fossil fuels
+ well established energy resource, relatviely cheap for large amounts of energy generated
- harmful to the environment, running out
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of nuclear energy
+ only small amounts of fuel needed to make large amounts of energy
- waste is highly radioactive. Spills can be catastrophic to the environment.
What is natural gas?
A naturally formed fossil fuel that has formed as a result of demoposition of sea plants and animals been subject to heat and pressure on the ocean bed.
Which countries have large supplies of natural gas?
Russia, Iran and Qatar.
What is shale gas?
A natural gas trapped within sedimentary rocks
Name some places where shale gas is found?
- South Africa
How is shale gas extracted?
A process call ‘fracking’
Explain the process of ‘fracking’
A mixture of water, sand and chemical is directed down through pipes into the earth, at high pressure. This releases the gas inside the rocks. This then flows out of the ground through pipes.
What are the advantages of extracting natural gas?
- Cleanest of the fossil fuels
- Less risky to extract
- Creates jobs
- Less CO2 emissions compared to other non-renewables
What are the disadvantages of extrating natural gas?
- Potentially hazardous to the environment if not handled carefully
- Fracking is controversial
- Expensive to set up
- Contributes to global warming (CO2 emissions)
What are the advantages of extracting natural gas from the Amazon?
+ Creates jobs
+ Peru could make up to $34 billion in 30 years
+ Wider benefits of improved infrastructure can benefit local people
What are the disdvantages of extracting natural gas from the Amazon?
- Many indigenous tribes live in the area who may be disturbed by the development
- Environmental damage created by pipeline e.g. landslides, pollution, deforestation
- Knock on impacts on the environment i.e. decline in fish stocks as a result of pollution, loss of animals due to deforestation
Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability for future generations to meet their own needs.
What does ‘energy conservation’ mean?
Saving energy by reducing consumption or being more energy efficient
List some ways individuals use energy
- Heating systems
- Running a vehicle
- Household appliances
Identify some ways that homes can become more energy efficient
- Insulate homes
- Double glazed windows
- Energy efficient appliances
- Energy saving lightbulbs
- Cycle rather than drive a car
- Install renewable energy e.g. soalr panels
- Use electric cars rather than petrol
How can demand for energy be reduced?
- Changing individual actions e.g. switching off appliances
- Provide suitable and accessible public transport to reduce car use
- Reducing hot water in appliances e.g. cooler washing machine settings
How can technology be used to improve fossil fuel efficiency?
- Hybrid cars - use less petrol
- Power stations switching to gas
- Biofuel technology in cars
- More efficient car engines
Describe the local renewable energy scheme used in Nepal
A micro hydro plant was installed. This diverts water away from a river, using the water to power a turbine.
Why is the micro hydro plant environmentally beneficial in Nepal?
- The community currently rely on use wood for fuel which is unsustainable and environmentally damaging
- The micro hydro plant doesn’t require a dam therefore doesn’t cause damage during set up
Why is the micro hydro plant socially beneficial in Nepal?
- Energy can be used to imprve day to day life i.e. cooking
- Less time is spent collecting wood for fuel
Why is the micro hydro plant economically beneficial in Nepal?
- More jobs have been created as a result of the reliable supply of energy
- Local people are able to fix and maintain the micro hydro plant which provides employment
- Cheap to set up and run