*Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - River Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) Flashcards Preview

SHHS - AQA GCSE Geography > *Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - River Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in *Physical Landscapes in the UK - [Optional] - River Landscapes in the UK (Paper 1) Deck (102)
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1

Define 'long profile'?

The change in the gradient of the river course from the upper course to the lower course.

2

What is a 'cross profile'?

A cross section of the river - this shows a 'slice' of the river valley and channel 

3

What is a V-Shaped valley?

A valley with steep sides and a narrow bottom that has been formed by erosion

4

What is a tributary?

A smaller river or stream flowing into a larger river

5

What is a confluence?

The point where two rivers meet

6

Define 'load'

The amount of material carried by a river

7

What is 'sediment'?

Material such as sand and clay that is carried by a river

8

What are the characteristics of the upper course of a river?

  • Steep gradient
  • Narrow v-shaped valley
  • Narrow/shallow river
  • Large angular sedimant load
  • Mostly erosion taking place

9

What are the characteristics of the middle course of a river?

  • Shallower gradient
  • Asymmetrical valley cross section
  • Deeper river
  • Smaller/rounded load
  • Balance between erosion and transportation taking place

10

What are the characteristics of the lower course of a river?

  • Very low gradient
  • U-shaped valley
  • Wide/deep river
  • Small suspended load
  • Mostly deposition taking place

11

Define 'erosion'?

The wearing away of rock by the natural processes of rivers, ice, wind and sea

12

Name the 4 processes of river erosion

  1. Abrasion
  2. Attrition
  3. Hydraulic Action
  4. Solution

13

Define 'hydraulic action'

Fast flowing water pushes air into cracks and the force of this causes the channel to break up over time

14

Define 'abrasion'

Sand and pebbles are dragged along the river bed, wearing it away

15

Define 'attrition'

Rocks and stones wear each other away as they knock together

16

Define 'solution' (erosion)

Rocks such as limestone are dissolved in acid rainwater

17

Define 'transportation'?

The movement of eroded material by natural processes such as wind, rivers and sea

18

Name the 4 processes of river transportation

  1. Traction
  2. Saltation
  3. Suspension
  4. Solution

19

Define 'traction'

Big boulders and stones are rolled and dragged along the river bed

20

Define 'saltation'

Stones and pebbles bounce along the river bed

21

Define 'suspension'

Smaller particles and stones (e.g. sand and silt)  are carried along in the rivers flow.

22

Define 'solution'

Some material is dissolved into the river water and transported this way

23

What does 'deposition' mean?

When a river drops the sediment that it is carrying 

24

Why will a river deposit its load?

  • Drier weather (less water so less energy)
  • River slows in speed (less speed so less energy e.g. inside bend of a river)
  • River floods (water onto the flood plain and deposits layers fine silt and clay [this is known as alluvium] which is fertile and good for farming)

25

Name the river landforms formed by erosion

  1. Waterfalls
  2. Gorges
  3. Interlocking spurs

26

Name the river landforms formed by erosion and deposition

  1. Meanders
  2. Ox-bow lakes

27

Name landforms created by deposition 

1. Floodplains

2. Levees

28

Name the landforms found in the upper course of a river valley

  1. Waterfalls
  2. Gorges
  3. Interlocking Spurs
  4. Rapids

29

What is a waterfall?

A vertical fall of water where the course of a river is interrupted by a steep drop in the land it is flowing over

30

How does a waterfall form?

  1.  Water flows over harder rock followed by softer rock
  2.  The softer rock underneath the harder rock will erode over time (hydraulic action and abrasion) creating a step in the river
  3. The hard rock is undercut by erosion.
  4. Eventually the hard rock will collapse as it is now unsupported creating a deep plunge pool.
  5. The process will continue over time creating a steep sided gorge