The Challenge of Resource Management - [Optional] - Food (Paper 2) Flashcards Preview

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What is 'food security'?

Having access to sufficient, nutritious and affordable food.


Which parts of the world consume high numbers of calories?

  • Europe i.e. France
  • North America (i.e. Canada and USA)


Which parts of the world consume low numbers of calories?

  • South East Asia i.e. Indonesia
  • Africa i.e. central Africa


Which parts of the world have a high global food supply?

  • China
  • India 
  • USA
  • Brazil
  • UK


Which parts of the world have a low global food supply?

Sub-Saharan Africa


Why do some countries have a high food production?

  • Reliable farming methods
  • High levels of intensive farming
  • Suitable climate
  • Government investment


Why do some countries have a low food production?

  • Unreliable climate
  • Frequent droughts
  • Lack of investment / training


Name some areas of the world have food insecurity?

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Afghanistan
  • Bangladesh


What is meant by 'food surplus'?

A country that produces more food than it demands


What is meant by 'food deficit'?

A country that produces less food than it demands


Why is food consumption increasing?

  • Increasing global population
  • Increasing wealth/affluence


How does economic development cause food consumption to increase?

  • People can afford more variety of foods
  • Wealthy countries import large amounts of produce
  • Industrialising countries experience increasing populations which increases food demand


List the impacts of food insecurity

  • Famine
  • Undernutrition
  • Soil erosion
  • Rising food prices
  • Conflict


What is 'famine'?

A large scale shortage of food which leads to populations becoming malnourished.


What can cause famine?

  • Drought leading to crop failure
  • Political conflict


What are the consequences of famine?

  • Serious malnourishment
  • Weakness and inability to work
  • Too weak to fight infection/ disease
  • Death


What is undernutrition?

Lack of a balanced diet


What are the impacts of malnutrition?

  • Weight loss
  • Health issues
  • Deficiency in vitamins and minerals
  • Death


How does soil erosion link to food insecurity?

Insufficient knowledge of technology to effectively farm can lead to over cultivation of land. This dries out the soil and exposes it to winds which erode the soil. Cattle may overgraze or too many trees may be remove which causes soils to bake.


Identify the physical factors that can cause food insecurity

  1. Climate - too hot or dry to grow food
  2. Water stress - inability to water crops
  3. Pests / disease - inability to protect crops from diseases which can destroy a yield


Identify the human factors that can cause food insecurity

  1. Poverty - not being able to afford to buy or effectively grow foods
  2. Technology - not having the equipment to produce food
  3. Conflict - makes it difficult to obtain food, some militant groups may prevent food reaching places


How does food insecurity lead to increased food prices?

  • Lower supply and high demand
  • Rising cost of transport / fertilizers etc


How does food insecurity lead to social unrest?

Food riots when supply is low - often coincide with high food prices


How can food production been increased?

  • Irrigation
  • Aeroponics and hydroponics
  • The 'new' green revolution
  • Biotechnology
  • Appropriate technology


What is irrigation?

Artificially watering land/crops


How does irrigation increase food supply?

  • Irrigation can be used when there are water shortages
  • Drip irrigation uses less water but directly waters crops


What are aeroponics?

Plants that are suspended in the air. They don't need soil to grow


What are hydroponics?

Plants that grow in gravel mixed with a nutrient solution


How do aeroponics and hydroponics increase food supply?

  • As they don't require soil and much water, they are a more reliable yield
  • Less likely to be affected by disease/pests
  • Seasonal goods can be grown throughout the year


What is the 'new' green revolution?

A sustainable approach to farming that is more environmentally friendly that the initial Green Revolution of the 1950-60s.