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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (37):
1

What vessels deliver blood to the kidney?

Afferent arteriole

2

What does the efferent arteriole contain?

The blood that was not filtered through the glomerulus; contains plasma proteins.

3

What percentage of our body is made up of water?

60% in men
50% in women

4

How much of the body is ICF and how much is ECF?

ICF = 67% ECF = 33%

5

What tracer can be used to measure total body water?

Labelled H20

6

What tracer can be used to measure ECF volume?

Inulin

7

What tracer can be used to measure plasma volume?

Labelled albumin

8

What are the two components of the kidney?

Vascular and tubular

9

What are the two capillary networks in the kidney and what do they each do?

Glomerulus. Brings blood to be filtered by the kidney
Peritubular capillaries. Nourish the renal tissue.

10

What force favours filtration?

Glomerular capillary blood pressure

11

What forces oppose filtration?

Plasma osmotic pressure
Bowmans capsule hydrostatic pressure

12

Is sodium concentration greater in the ECF or ICF?

ECF

13

Is pottassium concentration greater in the ICF or ECF?

ICF

14

Is chloride concentration higher in the ECF or the ICF?

ECF

15

What are the two components of the ECF?

Plasma and interstitial fluid

16

What is a cation?

positive ion

17

What is an anion?

Negative ion

18

What happens to the osmolarity of the ECF and the ICF if there is a gain of water?

Osmolarity of both the ICF and the ECF will decrease

19

What happens to the osmolarity of the ECF and `ICF if there is an increase in sodium concentration in the ECF?

Osmolarity of ECF will increase but osmolarity of the ICF will decrease. No gain of sodium in the ECF and water drawn out which reduces osmolarity.

20

What is an average GFR?

125ml/min

21

What happens in the kidney when the blood pressure falls too low?

There is sympathetically induced afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction which decreases flow of blood into the glomerulus, lowering GFR.

22

What happens int he kidney when the blood pressure is raised?

There is a reduction is sympathetic activity and resultant vasodilation leading to an increased GFR.

23

What are the two types of nephrons? Which is more common?

Cortical - lie in kidney cortex
Juxtamedullary - glomeruli lies in inner cortex, next to the medulla.

24

What part of the juxtamedullary nephrons actually lie in the medulla?

Loop of henle

25

What percentage of plasma that enters the glomerulus is filtered? ~

20%

26

Write an equation calculating how you would work out the filtration of substance X:

Xplasma x GFR

27

Write an equation calculating how you would work out the filtration of substance X:

Xurine x Volume of urine

28

Write an equation calculating the rate of reabsorption of substance X.

Rate of filtration of X - Rate of excretion of X

29

Write an equation calculating the rate of secretion of substance X.

Rate of excretion of X - rate of filtration of X

30

What is the average glomerular capillary blood pressure?

55mmHg

31

What is the average capillary oncotic pressure?

30mmHg

32

What is the average bowmans capsule hydrostatic pressure?

15mmHg

33

What is the average bowmans capsule oncotic pressure?

0mmHg

34

What is the major force that induces glomerular filtration?

Glomerular capillary blood pressure

35

Is glomerular capillary blood pressure higher or lower than blood pressure in other capillaries?

Higher

36

What is Kf in relation of the glomerulus?

The filtration coefficient which is an assesment of how "holey" the glomerulus is.

37

What is the equation to work out GFR?

Kf x net filtration pressure