Flashcards in Pig Enteric Disease: Post-weaning Deck (53):
Name 8 common post-weaning enteric diseases.
Post-weaning E. coli enteritis
When are you most likely to see post-weaning e. coli diarrhea?
1-3/5 days post weaning
What is the pathogenesis of e. coli diarrhea?
Enterotoxogenic E. coli (F4 / K88)
Bacteria adhere to brush border of SI, produce LT enterotoxin - Na and Cl ions into lumen of gut, diarrhea occurs
CS of enterotoxigenic e. coli diarrhea?
Diarrhea (1-5 days post weaning)
Rough hair coat
Watery brown diarrhea
Inconsistent fever (pretty much afebrile)
What are the 2 outcomes of enterotoxigenic e. coli diarrhea?
1) Die of dehydration
2) Recover w/ some reduction in growth rate (remain stunted)
Transmission of post-weaning e. coli diarrhea?
Fecal- oral transmission
Fomites or carriers
Persists in buildings
Seen in successive litters
Dx of post-weaning e. coli?
CS (1-5d post weaning), watery nature of diarrhea, Afebrile
PM changes only in SI
Demonstration of enterotoxigenic E. coli in diarrhea or SI
Tx of post-weaning e. coli?
Water medication w/ Trimethoprim Sulphonamide, Amoxycillin, Neomycin, Ampramycin, or Colistin
Feed medication not as satisfactory, b/c might not eat much b/c feeling sick
Prevention of post-weaning e. coli?
Zinc oxide in water for 1 week post-weaning and feed for 2 weeks post-weaning
-Ensure highly digestible diets b/c it may suppress appetite
Cause of edema disease?
Verocytogenic E. coli
(shiga and vero toxins)
when do you usually see Edema disease?
7-10 days after weaning (or after dietary change)
CS of Edema disease?
7-10 days after weaning
ataxia, squeaky voice, head pressing, blindness
Progresses to recumbency, paddling, coma & paralysis
EDEMATOUS FOREHEAD AND EYES
PM findings for Edema disease?
Edema of: Forehead, Large bowel and mesentery, Greater curvature of the stomach, +/- tissues / enteritis
Degeneration of media of arterioles, increased perivascular space in brain
Dx of Edema disease?
CS (edema, squeaky voice, nervous signs)
Edema in carcass + spaces around cerebral arterioles
Isolation of shigatoxin 2e = confirmation
Tx for Edema disease?
Abx in water - group
(won't help already infected animals)
If animal isn't eating/drinking/standing w/in 3 days = euthanize
Prevention of Edema disease?
prevent entry by isolation
Gradual dietary changes
Solid > liquid feed
Reduce crude protein, increase fiber
Feed medication over period of risk
Genetically resistant pigs
Vaccine (Eco Porc Shiga)
What causes proliferative enteropathy?
Pathogenesis of proliferative enteropathy?
Lawsonia intracellularis - obligate intracellular bacteria
Oral infection - invades epithelial cells of the crypts of SI via endocyte vacuole formation
Capillaries burst @ crypts
CS of proliferative enteropathy?
Pale, stunted (poor growth), anemia, +/- melena, grey "COW PAT" FECES
Can occur from weaning to adulthood
What disease can occur as a result of proliferative enteropathy?
Proliferative hemorrhagic enteritis
What is another name for proliferative enteropathy?
PM findings for Proliferative Enteropathy?
Pale pigs, carcass poor condition
Thickened & pale terminal ileum ("hosepipe effect")
Bloot clots in lumen of intestines (w/ PHE), polyps
In regional ileitis = mucosa is eroded w/ muscular hypertrophy
Dx for proliferative enteropathy?
over 6 weeks of age
CS (melena, pale)
PM - (thickened terminal ileum or cecal mucosa, polyps, necrosis, or muscular hypertrophy / blood clots)
Culture (takes a few weeks)
Blood - ELISA (use this for control - to see when seroconvert)
SILVER STAINING OF TISSUE
Tx of proliferative enteropathy?
Tetracycline or Tiamulin (in water for 4-5days, feed for 10d - 3weeks)
Also use tylosin, valnemulin, and aivlosin in feed
Prevention of proliferative enteropathy?
Vaccine - live ORAL
What are the 3 salmonella serotypes that affect pigs?
Typhimurium (most common), derby, choleraesuis
What is a public health concern with some serotypes of salmonella?
Route of infection w/ salmonella?
CS of salmonellosis?
Bloody diarrhea (often foul smelling, w/ necrotic tissue)
+/- death (infrequent, if septicemic)
NECROTIC EAR TIPS (microthrombi and necrosis)
RECTAL STRICTURE syndrome, occurs later
Transmission / spread of salmonella?
Shed in feces, resist drying
Enter by breeding stock, feed, fomites, vectors
Where in the body is Salmonella carried?
Tonsils and cecum (terminal ileum)
Tx of salmonellosis?
Parenteral abx w/ Amoxi clav, Trimethoprim sulphonamide, Neomycin, Apramycin, or Fluoroquinolones
or water / feed medication w/ those
Dx of Salmonellosis?
CS (fever, wasting, bloody diarrhea w/ necrotic material)
Ear tip necrosis
rectal stricture syndrome
Isolation of salmonella
Meat juice ELISA in abbatoir (currently suspended)
Control / Prevention of Salmonellosis?
2) all-in, all-out housing and disinfection
3) Purchase salmonella free stock
4) Vaccination (under cascade)
5) Exclude birds and flies (vector spread)
6)Meal feed > liquid feed > pelleted feed [meal feeds have less substrate to offer salmonella, and tend to be acidic which promotes salmonella death]
7) Tx cases and cull chronically affected animals
8) All farms should have salmonella control plans
What bacteria causes swine dysentery?
CS of swine dysentery?
Blood AND mucus on feces (mucohemorrhagic)
Slow spread from pen to pen (1/4 mortality)
Thin body [chronic loss of condition]
1/4 of pigs die
Pathogenesis of Swine Dysentery?
Multiply in crypts and invade goblet & epithelial cells
Inflammatory response - loss of tissue, blood, no resorprtion of Na / Cl ions
What is the main reason for death in pigs w/ swine dysentery?
Spread of swine dysentery?
Carrier pigs or fomites
Spreads on drainage lines on farm
Inactivated by UV light and heat, survives in feces and water
Can infect mice
Dx Swine dysentery?
Blood and mucus in diarrhea
Loss of condition
PCR testing of feces / intestinal contents
Isolate B. hyodysenteriae to confirm
Which enteric diseases infect the SI?
Post-weaning E. coli
Which enteric diseases infect the LI?
Tx of swine dysentery?
Tiamulin, valnemulin, aivlosin, and lincomycin
Parenteral in severe pigs, water/feed for groups
Tx all pigs in drainage contact
Disinfect after treatment
Control of swine dysentery? (not talking about elimination)
Continue meds @ low levels after tx
Slats and solid partitions
Tx batches into clean accomodation
Eradicate by depopulation or medication
Isolation prevents entry
Elimination of swine dysentery?
Full or partial depopulation
Partial depopulation (remove all pigs weaned up to 10 months - and medicate remaining sucklers and breeders @ high levels)
Get population w/ stable immunity
Wash and disinfect unit thoroughly
Rodent and Bird control
How is spirochaetal diarrhea different vs. swine dysentery?
Spirochaetal = caused by Bronchospira pilosicoli (or intermedia), no deaths, rare to find blood in feces
Swine dysentery = caused by Bronchospira hydyosenteriae, 1/4 pigs die, blood and mucus in feces
What age pig (category) do you usually see gastric ulceration and what is a risk factor?
Growers and finishers on finely ground rations
other risk factors:
high wheat diet (>55%)
CS of gastric ulceration?
Pale and sometimes abdominal pain (can be severe)
PM findings for gastric ulcerations?
ulcerations in pars esophagus (early lesions = roughening of pars esophagus)
blood clots in stomach
altered blood in gut, mucosa normal
Tx for gastric ulcers?
no specific tx
Decrease wheat content of diet, increase feed particle size, provide dietary fiber
Which diseases can you carry out serology?
Salmonellosis or Lawsonia (proliferative enteropathy)
When you can't give the whole pig for sampling (or clinical picture doesn't justify it), what type of samples would be preferred next?
pooled fecal samples for PCR and culture