Pig Enteric Disease: Post-weaning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pig Enteric Disease: Post-weaning Deck (53):
1

Name 8 common post-weaning enteric diseases.

Post-weaning E. coli enteritis
Edema disease
Salmonellosis
Proliferative enteropathy
Swine dysentery
Spirochaetal diarrhea
Colitis
Gastric Ulceration

2

When are you most likely to see post-weaning e. coli diarrhea?

1-3/5 days post weaning

3

What is the pathogenesis of e. coli diarrhea?

Enterotoxogenic E. coli (F4 / K88)
Bacteria adhere to brush border of SI, produce LT enterotoxin - Na and Cl ions into lumen of gut, diarrhea occurs

4

CS of enterotoxigenic e. coli diarrhea?

Diarrhea (1-5 days post weaning)
Dehydration
Rough hair coat
Watery brown diarrhea
Inconsistent fever (pretty much afebrile)

5

What are the 2 outcomes of enterotoxigenic e. coli diarrhea?

1) Die of dehydration
2) Recover w/ some reduction in growth rate (remain stunted)

6

Transmission of post-weaning e. coli diarrhea?

Fecal- oral transmission
Fomites or carriers
Persists in buildings
Seen in successive litters

7

Dx of post-weaning e. coli?

CS (1-5d post weaning), watery nature of diarrhea, Afebrile
PM changes only in SI
Demonstration of enterotoxigenic E. coli in diarrhea or SI

8

Tx of post-weaning e. coli?

Water medication w/ Trimethoprim Sulphonamide, Amoxycillin, Neomycin, Ampramycin, or Colistin
Warmth, hygiene

Feed medication not as satisfactory, b/c might not eat much b/c feeling sick

9

Prevention of post-weaning e. coli?

Zinc oxide in water for 1 week post-weaning and feed for 2 weeks post-weaning

-Ensure highly digestible diets b/c it may suppress appetite

10

Cause of edema disease?

Verocytogenic E. coli
(shiga and vero toxins)

11

when do you usually see Edema disease?

7-10 days after weaning (or after dietary change)

12

CS of Edema disease?

7-10 days after weaning
NO DIARRHEA
ataxia, squeaky voice, head pressing, blindness
Progresses to recumbency, paddling, coma & paralysis
EDEMATOUS FOREHEAD AND EYES

13

PM findings for Edema disease?

Edema of: Forehead, Large bowel and mesentery, Greater curvature of the stomach, +/- tissues / enteritis

Degeneration of media of arterioles, increased perivascular space in brain

14

Dx of Edema disease?

CS (edema, squeaky voice, nervous signs)
Multiplex PCR
Edema in carcass + spaces around cerebral arterioles
Isolation of shigatoxin 2e = confirmation

15

Tx for Edema disease?

Abx in water - group
(won't help already infected animals)
If animal isn't eating/drinking/standing w/in 3 days = euthanize

16

Prevention of Edema disease?

prevent entry by isolation
Decrease stress
Gradual dietary changes
Solid > liquid feed
Reduce crude protein, increase fiber
Feed medication over period of risk
Genetically resistant pigs
Vaccine (Eco Porc Shiga)

17

What causes proliferative enteropathy?

Lawsonia intracellularis

18

Pathogenesis of proliferative enteropathy?

Lawsonia intracellularis - obligate intracellular bacteria
Oral infection - invades epithelial cells of the crypts of SI via endocyte vacuole formation
Crypts infected!
Capillaries burst @ crypts

19

CS of proliferative enteropathy?

Pale, stunted (poor growth), anemia, +/- melena, grey "COW PAT" FECES
Can occur from weaning to adulthood

20

What disease can occur as a result of proliferative enteropathy?

Proliferative hemorrhagic enteritis

21

What is another name for proliferative enteropathy?

intestinal adenomatosis

22

PM findings for Proliferative Enteropathy?

Pale pigs, carcass poor condition
Thickened & pale terminal ileum ("hosepipe effect")
Bloot clots in lumen of intestines (w/ PHE), polyps
In regional ileitis = mucosa is eroded w/ muscular hypertrophy

23

Dx for proliferative enteropathy?

over 6 weeks of age
CS (melena, pale)
PM - (thickened terminal ileum or cecal mucosa, polyps, necrosis, or muscular hypertrophy / blood clots)
PCR
Culture (takes a few weeks)
Blood - ELISA (use this for control - to see when seroconvert)
SILVER STAINING OF TISSUE

24

Tx of proliferative enteropathy?

Tetracycline or Tiamulin (in water for 4-5days, feed for 10d - 3weeks)
Also use tylosin, valnemulin, and aivlosin in feed

25

Prevention of proliferative enteropathy?

Vaccine - live ORAL
"enterisol"

26

What are the 3 salmonella serotypes that affect pigs?

Typhimurium (most common), derby, choleraesuis

27

What is a public health concern with some serotypes of salmonella?

Zoonosis

28

Route of infection w/ salmonella?

oral

29

CS of salmonellosis?

Any age
Bloody diarrhea (often foul smelling, w/ necrotic tissue)
Pyrexia
+/- death (infrequent, if septicemic)
NECROTIC EAR TIPS (microthrombi and necrosis)
RECTAL STRICTURE syndrome, occurs later

30

Transmission / spread of salmonella?

Shed in feces, resist drying
oral infection
Enter by breeding stock, feed, fomites, vectors

31

Where in the body is Salmonella carried?

Tonsils and cecum (terminal ileum)

32

Tx of salmonellosis?

Parenteral abx w/ Amoxi clav, Trimethoprim sulphonamide, Neomycin, Apramycin, or Fluoroquinolones
or water / feed medication w/ those

33

Dx of Salmonellosis?

CS (fever, wasting, bloody diarrhea w/ necrotic material)
Ear tip necrosis
rectal stricture syndrome
Isolation of salmonella
Meat juice ELISA in abbatoir (currently suspended)

34

Control / Prevention of Salmonellosis?

1) Hygiene
2) all-in, all-out housing and disinfection
3) Purchase salmonella free stock
4) Vaccination (under cascade)
5) Exclude birds and flies (vector spread)
6)Meal feed > liquid feed > pelleted feed [meal feeds have less substrate to offer salmonella, and tend to be acidic which promotes salmonella death]
7) Tx cases and cull chronically affected animals
8) All farms should have salmonella control plans

35

What bacteria causes swine dysentery?

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

36

CS of swine dysentery?

Blood AND mucus on feces (mucohemorrhagic)
Slow spread from pen to pen (1/4 mortality)
Thin body [chronic loss of condition]
NO FEVER
1/4 of pigs die

37

Pathogenesis of Swine Dysentery?

Oral infection
LI mucosa
Multiply in crypts and invade goblet & epithelial cells
Inflammatory response - loss of tissue, blood, no resorprtion of Na / Cl ions

38

What is the main reason for death in pigs w/ swine dysentery?

Metabolic acidosis

39

Spread of swine dysentery?

Carrier pigs or fomites
Spreads on drainage lines on farm
Inactivated by UV light and heat, survives in feces and water
Can infect mice

40

Dx Swine dysentery?

Blood and mucus in diarrhea
Loss of condition
PCR testing of feces / intestinal contents
Isolate B. hyodysenteriae to confirm

41

Which enteric diseases infect the SI?

Post-weaning E. coli
Edema disease
Proliferative enteropathy
Salmonella

42

Which enteric diseases infect the LI?

Swine dysentery
Spirochaetal diarrhea

43

Tx of swine dysentery?

Tiamulin, valnemulin, aivlosin, and lincomycin
Parenteral in severe pigs, water/feed for groups
Tx all pigs in drainage contact
Disinfect after treatment

44

Control of swine dysentery? (not talking about elimination)

Continue meds @ low levels after tx
Slats and solid partitions
Tx batches into clean accomodation
Eradicate by depopulation or medication
Isolation prevents entry

45

Elimination of swine dysentery?

Full or partial depopulation
Partial depopulation (remove all pigs weaned up to 10 months - and medicate remaining sucklers and breeders @ high levels)
Biosecurity
Get population w/ stable immunity
Wash and disinfect unit thoroughly
Rodent and Bird control

46

How is spirochaetal diarrhea different vs. swine dysentery?

Spirochaetal = caused by Bronchospira pilosicoli (or intermedia), no deaths, rare to find blood in feces

Swine dysentery = caused by Bronchospira hydyosenteriae, 1/4 pigs die, blood and mucus in feces

47

What age pig (category) do you usually see gastric ulceration and what is a risk factor?

Growers and finishers on finely ground rations

other risk factors:
high wheat diet (>55%)

48

CS of gastric ulceration?

Pale and sometimes abdominal pain (can be severe)
+/- melena
hypothermic

49

PM findings for gastric ulcerations?

Pale carcass
ulcerations in pars esophagus (early lesions = roughening of pars esophagus)
blood clots in stomach
altered blood in gut, mucosa normal

50

Tx for gastric ulcers?

Decrease stress!
no specific tx
Decrease wheat content of diet, increase feed particle size, provide dietary fiber

51

Which diseases can you carry out serology?

Salmonellosis or Lawsonia (proliferative enteropathy)

52

When you can't give the whole pig for sampling (or clinical picture doesn't justify it), what type of samples would be preferred next?

pooled fecal samples for PCR and culture

?

53

Why do you never seen elephants hiding in trees?

Because they're so good at it